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Table 3 Cox regression models for predictors of death in 1,390 men and 288 women admitted to a methadone treatment program in metropolitan Barcelona, Spain, between 1992 and 2010

From: Sex-specific disease outcomes of HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users admitted to an opioid substitution therapy program in Spain: a cohort study

  Men Women
  Univariate Multivariate1 Univariate Multivariate2
  HR CI 95% HR CI 95% HR CI 95% HR CI 95%
Age at admission 1.03 1.02-1.05    1.04 1.00-1.08   
Period of admission         
1992-1996 2.33 1.18-4.59    1.24 0.28-5.44
1997-2001 1.31 0.66-2.62    0.90 0.20-4.02
2002-2006 0.96 0.45-2.01    0.86 0.17-4.21
2007-2010 1     1  
Social and drug use characteristics         
Age at first heroin use 1.01 0.99-1.03    1.02 0.97-1.07   
Injection drug use 2.87 1.97-4.18    7.38 2.32-23.52   
Unemployed 1.18 0.95-1.46    0.98 0.59-1.62   
Primary school attainment 1.27 0.97-1.65    0.79 0.40-1.54   
Prior incarceration 1.50 1.21-1.86    2.53 1.50-4.26 3.07 1.33-7.07
Co-morbidity         
HIV infection 4.01 3.09-5.21 3.5 2.09-5.74 5.46 2.49-11.99 3.20 1.18-8.70
HCV infection 2.37 1.44-3.90    3.42 0.80-14.61   
HBV infection (HBcAb+) 1.45 1.02-2.05    3.25 1.23-8.58   
Psychiatric disorder 1.06 0.83-1.36    0.70 0.39-1.26   
  1. Multivariate Cox regression with stepwise forward selection method. Statistically significant predictors are in bold (p < 0.05).
  2. 1Multivariate analysis for men included age at admission, injection drug use, prior incarceration, HIV infection, HCV infection and HBV infection.
  3. 2Multivariate analysis for women included age at admission, injection drug use, prior incarceration, HIV infection and HBV infection.