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Table 4 Significant covariates within final regression models for actual treatment patterns

From: Influence of real-world characteristics on outcomes for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections: a multi-country medical chart review in Europe

Level IV-to-oral antibiotic switch (n = 1425) Length of IV therapy (n = 1508) LOS (n = 1542)
  OR (95% CI) β (SE) β (SE)
Intercept 5.98 (1.71)*** 24.72 (2.47)***
Patient baseline characteristics
Country (vs Ireland/United Kingdom)
  Austria 0.17 (0.04–0.76)* 2.74 (1.49) 2.48 (2.64)
  France 1.44 (0.81–2.57) 4.24 (0.93)*** 6.23 (1.66)***
  Germany 0.40 (0.21–0.78)** 4.16 (0.97)*** 4.28 (1.74)*
  Greece 0.05 (0.01–0.18)*** 2.53 (1.14)* 1.25 (2.03)
  Italy 0.23 (0.10–0.55)*** 2.91 (1.04)** 4.69 (1.87)*
  Poland 0.19 (0.04–0.90)* 7.65 (1.69)*** 5.97 (2.93)*
  Portugal 0.16 (0.06–0.40)*** 4.41 (1.18)*** 4.46 (2.12)*
  Slovakia 0.67 (0.23–1.93) 5.29 (1.83)** 3.32 (3.14)
  Spain 0.90 (0.49–1.65) 3.10 (1.01)** 5.26 (1.81)**
IV drug abuse 0.72 (0.38–1.34) 2.78 (0.88)** 4.95 (1.72)**
CCI (continuous) 0.96 (0.89–1.04) 0.27 (0.12)* 0.44 (0.21)*
Any MRSA colonization before admission 1.77 (1.13–2.77)*   
  Not reported/unknown 1.78 (1.19–2.67)**   
Infection/treatment characteristics
cSSTI type (vs deep/extensive cellulitis)
  Surgical site infection or posttraumatic wound 1.26 (0.77–2.07) −1.39 (0.70)* −2.07 (1.24)
cSSTI location (vs torso/abdomen)
  Upper extremity 1.90 (1.09–3.33)* −1.62 (0.80)* −4.97 (1.43)***
Hospital-acquired or healthcare-associated infection unknown/undocumented 0.98 (0.60–1.59) −2.40 (0.68)*** −2.21 (1.20)
Days from admission to cSSTI index date (vs cSSTI at admission)
  ≥4 days after admission   1.13 (0.64) 5.57 (1.13)***
MRSA-targeted therapy patterns (vs IV-only)
  IV-to-oral antibiotic switch −5.19 (0.74)*** −1.86 (1.32)
  Discharged on OPAT −2.64 (1.59) −6.92 (2.85)*
  No MRSA-active antibiotic −7.52 (2.98)*
Initial antibiotic therapy was MRSA active (vs was not MRSA active) 0.41 (0.24 - 0.70)** 5.84 (1.01)***  
Time to initiating MRSA-active therapy (vs on or before cSSTI index date)
  1–2 days post cSSTI index date   −1.34 (0.39)*** −2.03 (0.66)**
   ≥3 days post cSSTI index date   2.20 (0.53)*** 4.18 (0.80)***
Physician specialty (vs GP)a
  IM 2.26 (1.43–3.56)*** 1.18 (0.64) 2.86 (1.13)*
  Infectious disease 3.01 (1.88–4.82)*** 2.39 (0.73)** 1.28 (1.30)
  Surgeon 1.31 (0.70–2.45) 2.73 (0.87)** 5.78 (1.55)***
Any surgical procedures for cSSTI 1.46 (1.00–2.12)* 0.81 (0.54) 1.80 (0.96)
Complications
Severe sepsis   1.93 (0.32)*** 2.32 (0.59)***
Superinfection    3.32 (0.95)***
Developed IV line infection    
Hospital characteristics
Overall hospital beds (vs ≥1000)
  10–249 2.37 (1.45–3.88)*** −2.17 (0.77)** −2.17 (1.37)
Hospital had an IV-to-oral antibiotic switch protocol   0.88 (0.61) −2.13 (1.08)*
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
  2. aDischarge physician specialty was used as a proxy for treating physician specialty.
  3. Full versions of the final models, including covariates that were statistically non-significant, are in Additional file 1: Table S1. Abbreviations: CCI, Charlson comorbidity index; CI, confidence interval; cSSTI, complicated skin and soft tissue infection; IV, intravenous; ED, early discharge; ES, early switch; GP, general practitioner; IM, internal medicine specialist; LOS, length of hospital stay; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; OPAT, outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy; OR, odds ratio; SAE, serious adverse event; SE, standard error.