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Table 3 Factors associated with VSE bacteraemia

From: Case-case-control study on factors associated with vanB vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible enterococcal bacteraemia

Factors associated with VSE bacteraemia VSE cases (n = 116) Controls (n = 116) Univariable Multivariable
OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Age, median (IQR), years 63.5 (51–76) 58 (44–68) 1.02 1.00-1.04 0.019 1.01 0.99-1.03 0.305
Female 44 (38) 53 (46) 0.74 0.44-1.23 0.243    
Transfer from another hospital 21 (18) 14 (12) 1.64 0.77-3.46 0.198    
Unit of admission         
  Non-haematology/oncology to read Non-haematology/oncology 73 (63) 49 (42) Reference Reference
  Haematology/oncology 43 (37) 67 (58) 0.04 0.01-0.30 0.002 0.08 0.01-0.74 0.026
ICU admission in prior 30 days 29 (25) 13 (11) 2.60 1.25-5.39 0.010 1.71 0.52-5.58 0.373
CDS-VRE score, median (IQR) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1.6) 0.89 0.66-1.20 0.446    
Clostridium difficile toxin positive 2 (2) 1 (1) 2.00 0.18-22.06 0.571    
Infection(s) due to pathogens other than Enterococci 43 (37) 34 (29) 1.45 0.82-2.56 0.201    
Gastrointestinal disease 64 (55) 38 (33) 3.00 1.60-5.62 0.001 2.29 1.05-4.99 0.037
Liver disease 13 (11) 15 (13) 0.71 0.23-2.25 0.566    
Haematological malignancy 35 (30) 63 (54) 0.15 0.06-0.39 <0.001 0.40 0.12-1.33 0.134
Bone marrow transplantation type
  Nil 105 (91) 100 (86)   Reference Reference
  Autologous 2 (2) 7 (6) 0.29 0.06-1.38 0.118    
  Allogeneic 9 (8) 9 (8) 1.00 0.38-2.66 1.000    
Ceftriaxone days, median (IQR), days 0 (0–0.5) 0 (0) 1.10 0.99-1.24 0.088    
Third generation cephalosporin days , median (IQR), daysa 0 (0–1) 0 (0–0.49) 1.03 0.94-1.13 0.523    
Fluoroquinolone days, median (IQR), daysb 0 (0–1.04) 0 (0–2.42) 0.96 0.91-1.02 0.190    
Metronidazole days, median (IQR), days 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.23 1.06-1.43 0.007 1.23 1.02-1.48 0.032
Ticarcillin-clavulanic acid days, median (IQR), days 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.02 0.93-1.11 0.711    
Piperacillin-tazobactam days, median (IQR), days 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.89 0.79-1.00 0.054    
Meropenem days, median (IQR), days 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.00 0.92-1.08 0.934    
Vancomycin days, median (IQR), days 0 (0–1.25) 0 (0–2.18) 0.97 0.92-1.03 0.343    
Neutropenia days, median (IQR), days 0 0 (0–1) 0.98 0.94-1.02 0.344 1.00 0.94-1.06 0.911
Hypoalbuminaemia days, median (IQR), days 7 (1–16) 5 (1–13.5) 1.01 0.98-1.05 0.479 1.00 0.95-1.05 0.888
Central line use 59 (51) 55 (47) 1.17 0.67-2.05 0.572    
Mechanical ventilation 17 (15) 7 (6) 2.67 1.04-6.81 0.040    
Urinary catheter 46 (40) 27 (23) 2.12 1.19-3.77 0.011 1.16 0.47-2.88 0.741
Parenteral nutrition 16 (14) 8 (7) 2.00 0.86-4.67 0.109    
  1. Note:
  2. Data are number (%) of patients unless indicated otherwise.
  3. aThird generation cephalosporins include cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime.
  4. bFluoroquinolones include moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin.