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Table 2 Associations between wound colonization by Staphylococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus, and hospitalization variables and wound characteristics

From: Prevalence and factors associated with wound colonization by Staphylococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureusin hospitalized patients in inland northeastern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

  Wound colonization by Staphylococcus spp.    Wound colonization by S. aureus   
  Yes No p PR Yes No p PR
  n (%) n (%) (95% CI) n (%) n (%) (95% CI)
Type of ward         
Medical 55 (65.90) 29 (34.10) 0.87 1.05 22 (25.90) 63 (74.10) 0.03 3.45
Surgical or ICU 25 (62.50) 15 (37.50) (0.79-1.40) 3 (7.50) 37 (92.50) (1.10-10.86)
Length of hospitalization         
≥7 days 36 (57.10) 27 (42.90) 0.10 0.79 10 (15.90) 53 (84.10) 0.35 0.66
<7 days 45 (72.60) 17 (27.40) (0.60-1.02) 15 (24.20) 47 (75.80) (0.32-1.35)
Prior antibiotic use         
≥3 days 37 (58.70) 26 (41.30) 0.21 0.83 6 (9.50) 57 (90.50) 0.01 0.31
<3 days 44 (71.00) 18 (29.00) (0.64-1.07) 19 (30.60) 43 (69.40) (0.13-0.73)
Clinical outcome         
Death 31 (64.60) 17 (35.40) 1.00 1.01 11 (22.90) 37 (77.10) 0.60 1.32
Discharge or transfer 48 (64.00) 27 (36.00) (0.77-1.32) 13 (17.30) 62 (82.70) (0.65-2.71)
Prior hospitalization         
Yes 49 (62.00) 30 (38.00) 0.51 0.89 12 (15.20) 67 (84.80) 0.13 0.54
No 32 (69.60) 14 (30.40) (0.69-1.15) 13 (28.30) 33 (11.70) (0.27-1.08)
Prior antibiotic use         
Yes 28 (57.10) 21 (42.90) 0.21 0.82 8 (16.30) 41 (83.70) 0.55 0.73
No 53 (69.70) 23 (30.30) (0.62-1.09) 17 (22.40) 59 (77.60) (0.34-1.56)
Wound acquisition         
Hospital 21 (67.70) 10 (32.30) 0.86 1.06 2 (6.50) 29 (93.50) 0.05 0.26
Community 60 (63.80) 34 (36.20) (0.80-1.41) 23 (24.50) 71 (75.50) (0.07-1.05)
Wound type  
Pressure ulcer 40 (63.50) 23 (36.50) 0.90 0.96 11 (17.50) 52 (82.50) 0.62 0.77
Diabetic foot or other 41 (66.10) 21 (33.90) (0.74-1.24) 14 (22.60) 48 (77.40) (0.38-1.57)
Wound site         
Lower limb 43 (66.20) 22 (33.80) 0.89 1.04 17 (26.20) 48 (73.80) 0.12 1.96
Sacral or other 38 (63.30) 22 (36.70) (0.81-1.35) 8 (13.30) 52 (86.70) (0.91-4.21)
Wound duration         
≤days 43 (68.30) 20 (31.70) 0.53 1.11 10 (15.90) 53 (84.10) 0.35 0.66
>30 days 38 (61.30) 24 (38.70) (0.86-1.44) 15 (24.20) 47 (75.80) (0.32-1.35)
Wound diameter         
>5 cm 36 (58.10) 26 (41.90) 0.17 0.81 13 (21.00) 49 (79.00) 0.79 1.10
≤5 cm 45 (71.40) 18 (28.60) (0.62-1.06) 12 (19.00) 51 (81.00) (0.55-2.22)
Wound pus         
Yes 22 (71.00) 9 (29.00) 0.54 1.13 9 (29.00) 22 (71.00) 0.23 1.71
No 59 (62.80) 35 (37.20) (0.86-1.49) 16 (17.00) 78 (83.00) (0.80-3.46)
Wound necrosis         
Yes 41 (57.70) 30 (42.30) 0.09 0.78 13 (18.30) 58 (81.70) 0.75 0.82
No 40 (74.10) 14 (25.90) (0.60-1.00) 12 (22.20) 42 (77.80) (0.41-1.66)
Foul wound odor  
Yes 13 (56.50) 10 (43.50) 0.50 0.85 6 (26.10) 17 (73.90) 0.40 1.40
No 68 (66.70) 34 (33.30) (0.58-1.24) 19 (18.60) 83 (81.40) (0.63-3.11)