Skip to main content

Table 1 Factors affecting spatial heterogeneity in HFRS incidence in Changchun

From: Increasing incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome could be associated with livestock husbandry in Changchun, Northeastern China

Period Variable (unit) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  PC (95% CI) P-value PC (95% CI) P-value
1988-1997 Livestock husbandry     
    Large animals (10 h/km2) 60.5 (-68.9, 729.4) 0.572 - -
    Sheep density (10 h/km2) -41.3 (-81.6, 87.4) 0.368 - -
    Deer density (10 h/km2) 154.6 (-2.6, 565.4) 0.057 NS. NS.
  Climate factors     
    Temperature (1°C) -74.6 (-95.6, 48.0) 0.128 - -
    Precipitation (1 mm) 26.7 (2.3, 56.9) 0.030 NS. NS.
    Relative humidity (%) 243.1 (136.3, 398.1) < 0.001 243.1 (136.3, 398.1) < 0.001
  Land cover     
    Irrigated cropland (1%) 16.7 (-2.0, 38.9) 0.084 NS. NS.
    Rainfed cropland (1%) -2.8 (-11.8, 7.0) 0.564 - -
    Forest (1%) 4.5 (-4.4, 14.3) 0.332 - -
    Grassland (1%) -28.8 (-63.9, 40.4) 0.327 - -
    Built-up lands (1%) -25.2 (-54.0, 21.6) 0.242 - -
1998-2012 Livestock husbandry     
    Large animals (10 h/km2) 2.1 (-21.2, 32.3) 0.874 - -
    Sheep density (10 h/km2) -12.1 (-43.8, 37.4) 0.571 - -
    Deer density (10 h/km2) 41.4 (30.2, 53.5) < 0.001 41.4 (30.2, 53.5) < 0.001
  Climate factors     
    Temperature (1°C) 7.7 (-87.6, 836.5) 0.947 - -
    Precipitation (1 mm) 28.6 (7.8, 53.4) 0.005 NS. NS.
    Relative humidity (%) 46.3 (-19.5, 165.7) 0.211 - -
  Land cover     
    Irrigated cropland (1%) 6.4 (-7.7, 22.6) 0.392 - -
    Rainfed cropland (1%) -2.4 (-10.6, 6.5) 0.580 - -
    Forest (1%) 4.4 (-4.4, 14.0) 0.342 - -
    Grassland (1%) -17.1 (-52.6, 45.0) 0.511 - -
    Built-up lands (1%) -3.5 (-15.2, 9.8) 0.591 - -
  1. Poisson regression analysis results after correction for over-dispersion.