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Table 1 Sample characteristics and univariate analysis

From: A prospective observational study of the prevalence and risk factors for colonization by antibiotic resistant bacteria in patients at admission to hospital in Singapore

  MRSA No (n = 988) Yes (n = 18) p-value ESBL-E No (n = 880) Yes (n = 124) p-value
Demographics:
Gender       
 Male 643 (98.2%) 12 (1.8%) NS 571 (87.2%) 84 (12.8%) NS
 Female 345 (98.3%) 6 (1.7%)   309 (88.5%) 40 (11.5%)  
Ethnicity       
 Chinese 639 (97.6%) 16 (2.4%) NS 571 (87.2%) 84 (12.8%) NS
 Malay 166 (99.4%) 1 (0.6%)   149 (89.2%) 18 (10.8%)  
 Indian 133 (99.2%) 1 (0.8%)   115 (86.5%) 18 (13.5%)  
 Others 50 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%)   45 (91.8%) 4 (8.2%)  
Residence in Nursing Home       
 No 966 (98.2%) 18 (1.8%) NS 860 (87.6%) 122 (12.4%) NS
 Yes 22 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%)   20 (90.9%) 2 (9.1%)  
Comorbid conditions:
Diabetes Mellitus       
 No 782 (98.7%) 10 (1.3%) 0.035 697 (88.2%) 93 (11.8%) NS
 Yes 206 (96.3%) 8 (3.7%)   183 (85.5%) 31 (11.5%)  
ESRF       
 No 977 (98.2%) 18 (1.8%) NS 869 (87.5%) 124 (12.5%) NS
 Yes 11 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%)   11 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
Liver Cirrhosis       
 No 977 (98.2%) 18 (1.8%) NS 869 (87.5%) 124 (12.5%) NS
 Yes 11 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%)   11 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
Cancer       
 No 962 (98.2%) 18 (1.8%) NS 854 (87.3%) 124 (12.7%) NS
 Yes 26 (100.0%) 0 (100.0%)   26 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
HIV       
 No 985 (98.2%) 18 (1.8%) NS 878 (87.7%) 123 (12.3%) NS
 Yes 3 (100.0%) 0 (0.0%)   2 (66.7%) 1 (33.3%)  
Corticosteroids       
 No 944 (98.2%) 17 (1.8%) NS 845 (88.1%) 114 (11.9%) NS
 Yes 43 (97.7%) 1 (2.3%)   34 (77.3%) 10 (22.7%)  
Healthcare risk factors:
Hospitalization       
 Within 3 month 155 (93.4%) 11 (6.6%) <0.001 131 (78.9%) 35 (21.1%) <0.001
 Within 12 month 297 (95.5%) 14 (4.5%) <0.001 257 (82.6%) 54 (17.4%) 0.002
Oral antibiotics       
 Within 1 month 279 (97.2%) 8 (2.8%) NS 227 (79.1%) 60 (20.9%) <0.001
 Within 3 month 343 (97.4%) 9 (2.6%) NS 286 (81.3%) 66 (18.7%) <0.001
Outpatient hospital visit       
 Within 3 month 402 (96.9%) 13 (3.1%) 0.013 347 (83.8%) 67 (16.2%) 0.002
 Within 12 month 536 (97.3%) 15 (2.7%) 0.016 470 (85.4%) 80 (14.6%) 0.021
Primary care visit       
 Within 3 month 657 (97.6%) 16 (2.4%) 0.046 584 (87.0%) 87 (13.0%) NS
 Within 12 month 729 (97.9%) 16 (2.1%) NS 652 (87.8%) 91 (12.2%) NS
HCW contact       
 No 853 (98.3%) 15 (1.7%) NS 759 (87.5%) 108 (12.5%) NS
 Yes 135 (97.8%) 3 (2.2%)   121 (88.3%) 16 (11.7%)  
  1. ESRF: End-stage Renal Failure; HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus; HCW: Healthcare Worker.