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Table 1 Summary of common factors associated with altered pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in critically ill patients

From: How do we use therapeutic drug monitoring to improve outcomes from severe infections in critically ill patients?

Increased Vd Decreased Cl Increased Cl Variable changes in Vdand/or Cl
Hypoalbuminaemia, leading to increased unbound drug Renal hypoperfusion Augmented renal clearance Extracorporeal interventions (eg RRT, ECMO)
Capillary leakage Acute kidney injury   
Fluid resuscitation Renal/hepatic dysfunction   
Third space loss