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Table 2 Multivariable associations between participant demographic and clinical characteristics and symptom severity (N = 2,374) 1

From: A cross-sectional analysis of symptom severity in adults with influenza and other acute respiratory illness in the outpatient setting

Characteristic Difference in average adjusted symptom severity score2 Standard error P-value
Age (years) (ref.: 18–49)    
  50-64 −0.19 0.35 0.51
  ≥ 65 −3.08 0.49 < 0.0001
Female gender 0.99 0.18 < 0.0001
Days elapsed between symptom onset and enrollment date (ref.: ≥ 7)    
  5-6 0.06 0.28 0.82
  3-4 0.04 0.26 0.87
  1-2 −0.27 0.27 0.31
  0 −2.45 0.53 < 0.0001
Number of ambulatory care visits in the past five years 0.01 0.001 < 0.0001
Influenza infection 3 1.73 0.36 < 0.0001
Vaccinated against influenza −0.39 0.24 0.11
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) (ref.: < 200)    
  200-239 0.67 0.19 0.0006
  ≥ 240 0.46 0.32 0.15
Body mass index (kg/m2) (ref.: < 25)    
  25-29 0.27 0.24 0.27
  ≥ 30 0.61 0.22 0.005
Smoking (ref.: Never)    
  Current 0.63 0.23 0.006
  Former 0.73 0.19 < 0.0001
Interaction: Age x influenza    
  50-64 × influenza infection 0.23 0.72 0.75
  ≥ 65 × influenza infection 4.21 1.37 0.002
Interaction: Age × influenza vaccination    
  50-64 × vaccinated −0.48 0.41 0.24
  ≥ 65 × vaccinated 1.45 0.57 0.01
Interaction: Influenza infection x influenza vaccination 0.92 0.68 0.17
Interaction: Age x influenza infection x influenza vaccination    
  50-64 x influenza infection × vaccinated −1.02 1.11 0.36
  ≥ 65 × influenza infection × vaccinated −6.75 1.68 < 0.0001
  1. 1Bolded values denote point estimate was significant (p < 0.05). Significant exposures in the crude models were also considered for inclusion in the final reduced model.
  2. 2Values are reported as point estimate ± standard error, p-value. Positive values with p < 0.05 indicate a significantly greater symptom severity score relative to the reference category (or 1-unit increase for continuous predictors) and negative values with p < 0.05 indicate a significantly lower symptom severity score relative to the reference category.
  3. 3Influenza infection refers to infection with either influenza A or B.