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Table 1 Patient characteristics based on recovery status of acute kidney injury (AKI)

From: Acute kidney injury due to anti-tuberculosis drugs: a five-year experience in an aging population

Variable Overall (n = 99) AKI-recovered (n = 71) AKI-unrecovered (n = 26) Loss of follow-up (n = 2)
Male 70 (71) 51 (72) 18 (69) 1 (50)
Age ≥65 59 (60) 42 (59) 16 (62) 1 (50)
Smoking 48 (49) 37 (52) 10 (38) 1 (50)
Alcoholism 16 (16) 13 (18) 2 (8) 1 (50)
Malnutrition 39 (39) 24 (34) 14 (54) 1 (50)
Old TB history 3 (3) 2 (3) 1 (4) 0 (0)
Re-treatment of TB* 11 (11) 9 (13) 2 (8) 0 (0)
Co-morbidity
 CKD 30 (30) 21 (30) 9 (35) 0 (0)
 DM 25 (25) 15 (21) 10 (38) 0 (0)
 Malignancy 25 (25) 19 (27) 5 (19) 1 (50)
 Gout 15 (15) 10 (14) 5 (19) 0 (0)
 Autoimmune disease 6 (6) 4 (6) 2 (8) 0 (0)
 HIV 2 (2) 2 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Sputum mycobacterial study
 AFB-positive 29 (29) 22 (31) 6 (23) 1 (50)
 Culture-positive 79 (80) 56 (79) 21 (81) 2 (100)
Presentations of AKI
 Rash 21 (21) 18 (25) 3 (12) 0 (0)
 Gastro-intestinal upset 17 (17) 14 (20) 3 (12) 0 (0)
 Fever 6 (6) 5 (7) 1 (3.8) 0 (0)
 Arthralgia 4 (4) 4 (6) 0 (0) 0 (0)
AKI stage
 Stage 1 83 (84) 63 (89) 19 (73) 1 (50)
 Stage 2 10 (10) 6 (8) 3 (12) 1 (50)
 Stage 3 6 (6) 2 (6) 4 (15) 0 (0)
 Onset of AKI after ATT (days) 44 [20–102] 40 [15–104] 50 [27–91] 73 [44–102]
 Management after AKI
 Hold rifampin 34 (34) 22 (31) 10 (38) 2 (100)
 Hold pyrazinamide# 35 (51) 24 (28) 11 (42) 0 (0)
 Re-challenge rifampin 21 (21) 14 (20) 7 (27) NA
  1. Abbreviations: AFB acid-fast bacilli smear, AKI acute kidney injury, ATT anti-TB treatment, TB tuberculosis.
  2. Note: Data are either number (%) or median [inter-quartile range]. There was no statistically significant difference between the AKI-recovered and -unrecovered groups.
  3. *Re-treatment meant that AKI recurred after re-exposure to rifampin.
  4. #Only 69 patients received pyrazinamide-containing anti-TB regimen at the onset of AKI.