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Table 4 Logistic regression analysis of determinants of longer patient delay, Malawi, 2011

From: Patient and health system delays in the diagnosis and treatment of new and retreatment pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Malawi

Characteristic New TB cases Retreatment TB cases
n Unadjusted OR Adjusted OR n Unadjusted OR Adjusted OR
(95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Total 460    128   
Education       
No school 65 1.47 (0.83 – 2.60) 1.73 (0.67 – 4.44) 17 1.27 (0.41 – 3.98)  
Primary 219 1.42 (0.95 – 2.11) 2.22 (1.25 - 3.94)* 66 1.34 (0.61 – 2.92)  
Secondary & above 176 reference   45 reference  
Occupation       
Unemployed 204 reference   51 reference  
Self-employed 146 0.86 (0.56 – 1.31)   55 0.95 (0.44 – 2.07)  
Employed 110 0.61 (0.39 – 0.98)   22 0.82 (0.29 – 2.29)  
Knowledge of coughing > 3 weeks as a TB symptom     
Yes 186 1.88 (1.11 – 3.19) 1.90 (1.10 –3.30)* 82 2.56 (0.99 – 6.61) 3.65 (1.25 –10.69)*
No 82 reference   23 reference  
Distance to nearest TB diagnostic facility     
0 – 10 Km 278 reference   86 reference  
> 10 Km 140 1.04 (0.69 – 1.57)   30 2.25 (0.97 – 5.23) 3.31 (1.14 – 9.59)*
Unknown 42 0.67 (0.35 – 1.30)   12 1.97 (0.58 – 6.64) 2.02 (0.38 – 10.76)
Perceiving condition as worsening     
Yes 80 0.95 (0.59 – 1.54)   23 0.96 (0.38 – 2.43)  
No 380 reference   105 reference  
  1. OR = odds ratio, CI = confidence interval.
  2. *p < 0.05.