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Table 1 Explanatory variables

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of antibiotic consumption on antibiotic resistance

Variable Number (percentages in parenthesis) total sample = 243
Outcome Positive 164 (67%)
Negative or equivocal 79 (33%)
Level of sampling Individual 72 (30%)
Region/Country 124 (51%)
Other 47 (19%)
Level of analysis Individual 178 (73%)
Region/Country 53 (22%)
Other 12 (5%)
Children/Adults Children 88 (36%)
Adults 62 (26%)
Both 93 (38%)
Bacteria* Streptococcus 132 (54%)
Staphylococcus 50 (21%)
Enteric Bacteria 69 (28%)
Haemophilus 24 (10%)
Other 17 (7%)
Most common bacteria/Drug combinations** B-lactam resistant S pneumonia 104 (43%)
Macrolide resistant S pneumonia 56 (23%)
Quinolone resistant E coli 41 (17%)
B-lactam resistant E coli 35 (14%)
Sulphonamide resistant E coli 31 (13%)
Methicillin-resistant S aureus 38 (16%)
Most common antibiotics consumed*** B-lactams 132 (54%)
Macrolides 93 (38%)
Sulphonamides 59 (24%)
Quinolones 52 (21%)
Antibiotic not specified 65 (27%)
Time between consumption and resistance^ Six months or less 129 (53%)
More than 6 months 57 (23%)
Same time 43 (18%)
Not specified 14 (6%)
How antibiotic consumption was assessed# Self report 99 (41%)
Medical records 92 (38%)
Sales/Prescriptions 65 (27%)
Direct application of antibiotic 14 (6%)
Region where study was conducted## Northern Europe 66 (27%)
Southern Europe 45 (18%)
US 67 (28%)
Other 61 (25%)
Type of study Cross-sectional 101 (42%)
Ecological 56 (23%)
Case–control 35 (14%)
Quasi-experiment 21 (9%)
Other 30 (12%)
  1. *Percentages do not equal 100% as any given study may have examined more than one type of bacteria.
  2. **Percentage do not equal 100% as any given study may have examined more than one combination; resistant and non-susceptible strains of S pneumonia are combined under the resistant label for this bacterium.
  3. ***Percentages do not equal 100% as any given study may have examined more than one antibiotic.
  4. ^This variable represents the maximum time interval in any given study between when consumption occurred and resistance was measured. Studies classified as ‘same time’ tended to be ecological studies where the precise interval separating consumption and resistance could not be determined, these studies often simply reported consumption and resistance occurring together over some multi-year interval.
  5. #Percentages do not equal 100% as any given study may have used more than one method.
  6. ##The total equals 239 as three studies were conducted in both southern Europe and northern Europe and one study was coded as not applicable.