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Table 2 Univariate analyses: factors associated with severity among ≥5 year-old patients hospitalized with community-acquired acute lower respiratory infection, April 2007 - December 2009, Kampong Cham and Takeo provinces, Cambodia (N = 1,904)

From: Acute lower respiratory infections in ≥5 year -old hospitalized patients in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country: clinical characteristics and pathogenic etiology

  Severe cases   Non-severe cases   p values
Total numbers (N = 1904) 188 9.9% 1716 90.1%  
Median age in years (range) 25.5 8-56 55 41-66 <0.001
Mean age in years 32.1   51.8   <0.001
Age groups in years      
 5-14 80 42.6% 74 4.3% <0.001
 15 - 49 50 26.6% 609 35.5% 0.019
 ≥50 58 30.9% 1033 60.2% <0.001
Gender, male 106 56.4% 835 48.7% 0.068
Signs and symptoms      
 Wheezing 63 33.5% 198 11.5% <0.001
 Dry cough 84 44.7% 435 25.3% <0.001
Time interval between presentation and symptoms onset in days    
 Median (IQR) 4 2-7 6 4-9 <0.001
 Mean 4.9   6.4   <0.001
Duration of hospital stay in days      
 Median (IQR) 5 3-7 7 4-11 <0.001
 Mean 6.1   8.6   <0.001
Reports of medicine use prior to admission      
 no antibiotics used 97 51.6% 835 48.7% NS
 Unidentified drugs used 62 33.0% 714 41.6% 0.028
 Antibiotics used 29 15.4% 154 9.0% 0.007
Patient outcomes      
 Deceased 17 9.0% 44 2.6% <0.001
 Cured or improved 132 70.2% 1132 66.0% NS
 Transferred 32 17.0% 450 26.2% 0.008
 Escaped 7 3.7% 90 5.2% NS
Co-morbidities      
 Cardiovascular disorder 28 14.9% 190 11.1% NS
 Diabetes mellitus 20 10.6% 175 10.2% NS
 Renal disorder 18 9.6% 113 6.6% NS
 Liver disorder 0 0.0% 16 0.9% NS
Laboratory results      
 Leukocytosis 106 57.3% 552 32.3% <0.001
 Neutrocytosis 106 58.6% 523 34.0% <0.001
 Lymphocytosis 14 8.5% 85 5.6% NS
Patients tested by microbiology method      
 Blood culture 168 89.4% 1527 89.0% NS
 Sputum culture 47 25.0% 843 49.1% 0.002
 Blood or sputum culture 173 92.0% 1616 94.2% NS
 Sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) 113 60.1% 1569 91.4% <0.001
 Nasopharyngeal swabs 184 97.9% 1671 97.4% NS
 Samples collected for bacterial & AFB etiologies 173 92.0% 1623 94.6% NS
Samples collected for bacterial & viral etiologies 169 89.9% 1579 92.0% NS
Bacterial or viral yield      
 Positive blood culture 9 5.4% 24 1.6% 0.002
 Positive sputum culture 15 31.9% 257 30.5% NS
 Positive blood or sputum culture 24 13.9% 276 17.1% NS
 Positive smear for AFB 13 11.5% 251 16.0% <0.001
 Positive PCR for viruses 55 29.9% 250 15.0% <0.001
Bacterial etiologies      
H. influenzae 5 2.9% 109 6.7% 0.074
S. pneumoniae 3 1.7% 50 3.1% NS
B pseudomallei 5 2.9% 23 1.4% NS
Klebsiella pneumoniae 5 2.9% 38 2.4% NS
P. aeroginosa 1 0.6% 36 2.2% NS
S. aureus 1 0.6% 10 0.6% NS
 AFB 13 7.5% 251 15.5% 0.030
Viral etiologies      
 Rhinovirus 32 17.4% 119 7.1% <0.001
 Respiratory syncytial virus 6 3.3% 48 2.9% NS
 Influenza viruses 4 2.2% 33 2.0% NS
 Coronaviruses 6 3.3% 25 1.5% NS
 Human metapneumovirus 4 2.2% 10 0.6% 0.054
 Other viruses 5 2.7% 21 1.3% NS
Mixed infections (% = # of the positive results)      
 >1 pathogen (AFB, bacterium or virus) 3 3.5% 60 8.9% NS
 >1 bacterium identified 1 1.2% 25 3.7% NS
 AFB and ≥1 bacterium identified 1 1.2% 29 4.3% NS
 Co-infections AFB & virus 0 0.0% 26 3.9% NS
 Co-infections virus-virus 2 2.3% 6 0.9% NS
Overall etiology results      
 Bacterial etiologies (AFB or other bacteria) 36 20.8% 498 30.7% <0.001
 Viral and bacterial etiologies 86 50.9% 674 42.7% <0.001