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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with HCAP, HAP, or VAP

From: A comparison of microbiology and demographics among patients with healthcare-associated, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia: a retrospective analysis of 1184 patients from a large, international study

Baseline characteristic HCAP HAP VAP p value
  (n = 199) (n = 379) (n = 606)  
Age, y, mean (SD) 69.5 (13.4) 63.3 (15.8) 55.8 (19.8) < 0.001
Male, n (%) 117 (58.8) 247 (65.2) 411 (67.8) 0.067
APACHE II, mean (SD) 18.7 (6.4) 16.1 (6.3) 17.8 (5.7) < 0.001
Race, n (%)     < 0.001
 White 151 (75.9) 217 (57.3) 429 (70.8)  
 Black 25 (12.6) 28 (7.4) 72 (11.9)  
 Asian 18 (9.1) 97 (25.6) 56 (9.2)  
 Other 5 (2.5) 37 (9.8) 49 (8.1)  
Region, n (%)     < 0.001
 United States 174 (87.4) 163 (43.0) 376 (62.1)  
 Europe 6 (3.0) 51 (13.5) 84 (13.9)  
 Latin America 2 (1.0) 43 (11.4) 78 (12.9)  
 Asia 14 (7.0) 93 (24.5) 49 (8.1)  
 Other 3 (1.5) 29 (7.7) 19 (3.1)  
Comorbidities, n (%)     
Cardiac 153 (76.9) 198 (52.2) 359 (59.2) < 0.001
Pulmonary 164 (82.4) 186 (49.1) 387 (63.9) < 0.001
Renal/Urinary 110 (55.3) 127 (33.5) 194 (32.0) < 0.001
Diabetes 98 (49.3) 128 (33.8) 198 (32.7) < 0.001
Vascular 74 (37.2) 109 (28.8) 187 (30.9) 0.111
Neoplastic 23 (11.6) 68 (17.9) 42 (6.9) < 0.001
Hepatobiliary 17 (8.5) 42 (11.1) 91 (15.0) 0.031
  1. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; HAP, Hospital-acquired pneumonia; HCAP, Healthcare-associated pneumonia; VAP, Ventilator-associated pneumonia.