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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics

From: Delayed diagnosis and associated factors among new pulmonary tuberculosis patients diagnosed at the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital in Porto Alegre, South Brazil: a prospective patient recruitment study

Characteristics n = 153
Age, years (mean ± SD) 42.6 ± 15.7
Male sex, n (%) 90 (58.8)
White race, n (%) 88 (57.5)
< 8 years schooling, n (%) 81 (52.9)
Literate, n (%) 141 (92.2)
Living alone, n (%) 30 (19.6)
Belief in a religion, n (%) 126 (82.4)
Monthly household income < 1 standard minimum wage*, n (%) 51 (33.3)
Living in Porto Alegre, n (%) 101 (66.0)
Institutionalization, n (%) 23 (15)
Smoking habit, n (%)  
Never smoker 55 (35.9)
Current smoker 42 (27.5)
Former smoker 56 (36.6)
Alcoholism, n (%) 53 (34.6)
Drug use, n (%) 50 (32.7)
Marijuana, n (%) 29 (19.0)
Cocaine use, n (%) 27 (17.6)
Crack use, n (%) 35 (22.9)
HIV positive, n (%) 77 (51.1)
Non-HIV immunosuppression, n (%) 22 (14.4)
Sought care elsewhere before hospitalization, n (%) 113 (73.9)
Forms of TB, n (%)  
Pulmonary TB 127 (83.0)
Milliary TB 19 (12.4)
Pleuropulmonary TB 7 (4.6)
Total time until diagnosis (days), median (IR) 60.0 (30.0-90.5)
Patient delay (days), median (IR) 30.0 (7.0-60.0)
Health care system delay (days), median (IR) 18.0 (9.0-39.5)
  1. TB = Tuberculosis; SD = Standard deviation, n = Number of cases, HIV = Human immunodeficiency virus, IR = Interquartile range.
  2. *Approximately U$ 312 (2013).