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Table 2 Summary of biochemical, histopathological, and virological patterns during HEV (genotype 3) infection in cynomolgus monkeys

From: Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

Inocula Animal ID ALT AST GGT Tb **Liver injury HEV RNA detection ***anti-HEV Clinical interpretation****
(IU/dL) (#maximum value obtained) (Score) (dpi*) (EIA reactivity)
Serum Saliva
Serum Faeces IgM IgG IgA IgA
Br-swine X15 73 295 315 0.8 2 --- 14 - 21 + + + nt Subclinical hepatitis E
Q11 24 31 64 0.7 1 14 7 - 21 + + + - Subclinical hepatitis E without biochemical disorders
I3 40 54 224 0.8 2 39 - 53 21 - 53 - - - + Subclinical hepatitis E
D-swine 01 40 119 237 0.8 1 14 5 - 18 + + + - Subclinical hepatitis E
G3 32 42 138 0.8 1 7 - 14 7 - 18 + + + +/- Subclinical hepatitis E without biochemical disorders
F3 99 302 238 0.7 1 --- --- + + + + Biochemical and histological hepatitis E
Br-human J3 57/46 50 293 0.8 1 --- --- - + - - Biochemical and histological hepatitis E
Ar-human R7 21 213 188 0.8 0 --- 14 - 27 + + + nt Subclinical hepatitis E
Control I2 21 43 92 0.8 0 --- --- - - - nt Uninfected
Q12 21 116 103 0.7 0 --- --- - - - - Uninfected
  1. *dpi: days post inoculation.
  2. **Liver sections were prepared from large liver samples collected during necropsy; liver injury score (adapted from [29]): 0 – without inflammation, 1 – 1 to 2 lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltrates/10 liver lobules, 2–3 to 5 inflammatory infiltrates/10 lobules, 3–6 to 10 inflammatory infiltrates/10 lobules, 4- >10 inflammatory infiltrates/10 lobules (adapted from [29]).
  3. ***DiaCheck anti-human HEV antibody assay that was modified with a goat anti-macaque secondary antibody.
  4. #The maximum value obtained during the entire follow-up period is provided.
  5. ****Subclinical hepatitis was considered when the animals presented only laboratorial finds of infection, Biochemical hepatitis was considered using species-specific normal values and pre-inoculation values. Liver enzymes values were elevated at least twice above baseline in the context of an HEV infection. Histological hepatitis was considered when the animals presented lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltrates in liver biopsy.
  6. Br: Brazilian, Ar: Argentinian, D: Dutch, EIA: Enzyme immunoassay, nt: not tested, (they did not produced enough saliva).