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Table 2 Demographic data and perinatal risk factors for hospital acquired infections in the study population

From: Successful control of a Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit: a retrospective, before-after study

  1stperiod 2ndperiod p-value
  Infants = 510 Infants = 505  
Gestational age (weeks) 32.7 ± 4.2 33.0 ± 4.5 0.31
< 34 (%) 58.6 55.6 0.17
34 - 36 (%) 20.0 18.0
> 36 (%) 21.4 26.4
Birth weight (grams) 1934 ± 864 2022 ± 942 0.12
Sex male (%) 56.1 54.9 0.69
Antenatal steroids (%) 56.7 54.1 0.37
Clinical chorioamnionitis (%) 13.1 10.1 0.13
Apgar score ≤ 3 at 1 min (%) 12.7 12.1 0.17
Inborn (%) 71.8 71.3 0.87
Caesarean delivery (%) 62.3 54.3 0.0089
Use of surfactant (at last once) (%) 55.7 43.2 <0.001
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (%) 79.8 78.2 0.53
BPD @ 28 days (%) 17.6 19.4 0.47
IVH 3°- 4° (%) 3.1 2.4 0.33
NEC all stages (%) 3.3 2.8 0.60
Malformations (%) 15.9 19.2 0.16
Mean duration of stay in III level NICU (days) 16.8 ± 21.2 15.0 ± 19.6 0.08
Mean total duration of stay (days) 47.0 ± 35.3 48.4 ± 40.3 0.94
Death (%) 5.9 5.4 0.71
IMV (% of infants per day) 0.23 ± 0.09 0.18 ± 0.09 0.0001
NCPAP (% of infants per day) 0.49 ± 0.11 0.42 ± 0.12 0.0001
CVL (% of infants per day) 0.36 ± 0.13 0.34 ± 0.11 0.15
Means number of antibiotics (per infant per day) 0.48 ± 0.22 0.53 ± 0.23 0.001
Occupancy rate (per day) 0.87 ± 0.09 0.77 ± 0.11 < 0.0001
Nurse to patient ratio (per day) 1.35 ± 0.19 1.53 ± 0.30 < 0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: BPD Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, IVH Intraventricular Haemorrhage, NEC Necrotizing Enterocolitis, NICU Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, IMV Invasive Mechanical Ventilation, NCPAP Nasal Continuous Positive Air Pressure, CVC Central Venous Lines.