Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline and clinical characteristics of 61 cirrhotic patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia and 61 controls with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia

From: Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia in patients with liver cirrhosis: a comparison with bacteremia caused by Enterobacteriaceae

Variable Case patients Control patients P
(n = 61) (n = 61)
Age (mean in year ± SD) 56.8 ± 13.1 60.7 ± 8.9 0.06
Male (%) 46 (75.4) 44 (72.1) 0.68
Etiology of liver cirrhosis (%)    0.10
  HBV 41 (67.2) 44 (72.1)  
  HCV 6 (9.8) 11 (18.0)  
  Alcohol 1 (1.6) 2 (3.3)  
  Cryptogenic 11 (18.0) 4 (6.6)  
  Biliary 2 (3.3) 0 (0.0)  
Source of bacteremia (%)    <0.01
  Lung 4 (6.6) 1 (1.6)  
  Urinary tract 1 (1.6) 6 (9.8)  
  CVC 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
  SBP 6 (9.8) 19 (31.2)  
  Biliary tree 32 (52.5) 16 (26.3)  
  Abdomena 7 (11.5) 3 (4.9)  
  Other 2 (3.3) 1 (1.6)  
  Unknown 9 (14.8) 15 (24.6)  
Onset of bacteremia (%)    <0.01
  Community acquired 10 (16.4) 28 (45.9)  
  Nosocomialb 51 (83.6) 33 (54.1)  
Child-Pugh class (%)    0.64
  A 17 (27.9) 16 (26.2)  
  B 24 (39.3) 22 (36.1)  
  C 20 (32.8) 23 (37.7)  
Pitt bacteremia score (mean ± SD) 2.0 ± 2.6 1.4 ± 1.9 0.14
Charlson weighted index of comorbidity (mean ± SD) 5.7 ± 1.9 5.2 ± 1.7 0.16
Comorbid conditions (%)    
  Liver transplantation 20 (32.8) 10 (16.4) 0.04
  Biliary disease 39 (63.9) 18 (29.5) <0.01
  Diabetes mellitus 4 (6.6) 5 (8.2) 1.00
  End stage renal disease 5 (8.2) 4 (6.6) 1.00
  Hepatocellular carcinoma 40 (65.6) 38 (62.3) 0.71
  Solid tumor other than HCC 8 (13.1) 4 (6.6) 0.36
  Hematologic malignancies 3 (4.7) 0 (0.0) 0.24
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 1 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 1.00
  Bronchiectasis 2 (3.3) 0 (0.0) 0.50
Clinical presentation (%)    
  Fever 51 (83.6) 49 (80.3) 0.64
  Acute renal failure 0 (0.0) 6 (9.8) 0.03
  Septic shock 5 (8.2) 7 (11.5) 0.54
Co-existing conditions (%)    
  Neutropenia 2 (3.3) 0 (0.0) 0.50
  Immunosuppressive drugc 24 (39.3) 11 (18.0) <0.01
  CVC 2 (3.3) 6 (9.8) 0.27
  Urinary catheter 2 (3.3) 5 (8.2) 0.44
  Nasogastric tube 2 (3.3) 3 (4.9) 1.00
Previous exposure of antibiotics (%) 52 (85.3) 50 (82.03) 0.47
Polymicrobial bacteremia (%) 5 (8.2)d 2 (3.3)e 0.44
Laboratory data at the time of bacteremia    
  Bilirubin (mg/dL), median (IQR) 3.7 (1.2 - 13.4) 2.2 (1.4 - 5.5) 0.34
  Prothrombin time (by INR), median (IQR) 1.29 (1.11 - 1.56) 1.43 (1.21 - 1.70) 0.02
  Albumin (g/dL), median (IQR) 3.1 (2.8 - 3.8) 3.0 (2.6 - 3.4) 0.30
  Creatinine (mg/dL), median (IQR) 1.00 (0.81 - 1.56) 1.00 (0.90 - 1.40) 0.50
Appropriate initial antibiotic regimen (%) 18 (29.5) 40 (65.6) <0.01
30-day mortality (%) 12 (19.7) 15 (24.6) 0.51
  1. aIntra-abdominal infection excluding SBP and biliary tree infection.
  2. bIncludes both nosocomial bacteremia and healthcare-associated bacteremia.
  3. cIncludes anti-neoplastic drugs, cytotoxic drugs, and corticosteroids.
  4. dAssociated bacteria were Enterococcus faecalis (2), Enterococcus faecium (1), Enterococcus gallinarum (1), Staphylococcus epidermis (1).
  5. eAssociated bacteria were Salmonella enterica + E. faecium (1), Serratia liquefaciens + Enterobacter cloacae (1).
  6. Abbreviation: SD standard deviation, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, CVC central venous catheter, SBP spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, IQR interquartile range, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, INR international normalized ratio.