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Table 3 Univariate analysis of the association between subclinical atherosclerosis and socio-demographic variables, habits, and metabolic data in individuals infected with HIV by age group, seen at two referral hospitals in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

From: Risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients under and over 40 years: a case–control study

Variables < 40 years old (n=351) ≥ 40 years old (n=346)
% subclinical atherosclerosis OR(CI) p-value % subclinical atherosclerosis OR(CI) p-value
Age (continuous) - 1.17 (1.10 – 1.25) < 0.001 - 1.11 (1.06 – 1.16) < 0.001
Gender       
Female 18.3 1.0 - 62,7 1.0 -
Male 26.8 1.63 (0.96 – 2.75) 0.067 69.2 1.33 (0.84 – 2.09) 0.213
Race       
White 13.3 1.0 - 68.2 1.0 -
Nonwhite 26.8 2.38 (1.22 – 4.64) 0.011 65.9 0.89 (0.53 – 1.52) 0.691
Schooling (years of study)       
1 to 12 22.3 1.0 - 66.4 1.0 -
13 or more 32.3 1.67 (0.77 – 3.59) 0.190 68.3 1.10 (0.58 – 2.10) 0.759
Stable partner       
No 20.1 1.0 - 62.5 1.0 -
Yes 36.8 2.30 (1.30 – 4.08) 0.004 78.6 2.19 (1.23 – 3.91) 0.008
Smoking       
No 24.4 1.0 - 66.4 1.0 -
Yes 19.8 0.87 (0.36 – 2.09) 0.759 66.7 0.97 (0.46 – 1.93) 0.929
Lipodystrophy       
No 20.6 1.0 - 63.5 1.0 -
Yes 28.0 1.50 (0.88 – 2.54) 0.131 70.2 1.35 (0.84 – 2.17) 0.206
Metabolic Syndrome       
No 17.9 1.0 - 63.9 1.0 -
Yes 49.1 4.42 (2.44 – 7.99) 0,000 72.0 1.44 (0.87 – 2.38) 0.147
Hypertension       
No 19.1 1.0 - 61.0 1.0 -
Yes 44.3 3.36 (1.87 – 6.03) 0.000 76.9 2.12 (1.28 – 3.52) 0.004
Waist circumference (cm)       
Normal 19.2 1.0 - 62.3 1.0 -
Abnormal* 41.2 2.94 (1.66 – 5.18) 0.000 74.7 1.64 (0.93 – 2.89) 0.087
BMI (kg/m 2 )       
< 25 15.5 1.0 - 60.0 1.0 -
≥ 25 and < 30 32.6 2.63 (1.49 – 4.67) 0.001 75.2 2.02 (1.19 – 3.42) 0.008
≥ 30 52.9 6.14 (2.86 – 13.2) 0.000 81.2 2.88 (1.13 – 7.32) 0.025
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)       
< 200 21.7 1.0 - 62.6 1.0 -
200 - <240 28.6 1.44 (0.69 – 2.98) 0.323 69.4 1.35 (0.79 – 2.32) 0.269
≥ 240 42.1 2.62 (1.01 – 6.80) 0.048 83.0 2.89 (1.22 – 6.84) 0.015
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) **       
Normal 24.8 1.0 - 64.8 1.0 -
Low 22.4 0.87 (0.52 – 1.44) 0.596 67.7 1.13 (0.72 – 1.79) 0.579
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)       
< 130 22.2 1.0 - 61.5 1.0 -
≥ 130 30.4 1.53 (0.77 – 3.05) 0.225 82.9 3.02 (1.58 – 5.82) 0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dL)       
< 150 18.9 1.0 - 63.9 1.0 -
≥ 150 31.4 1.96 (1.17 - 3.28) 0.010 69.3 1.27 (0.80 – 2.01) 0.296
Fasting glucose (mg/dL)       
< 100 21.6 1.0 - 65.6 1.0 -
≥ 100 35.7 2.01 (1.01 – 4.01) 0.046 72.4 1.39 (0.81 – 2.38) 0.227
  1. *Men: waist >102 cm; women: waist >88 cm.
  2. **Low HDL-cholesterol < 40 mg/dL in men and < 45 mg/dL in women.