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Table 2 Risk of testing PCR positive for multiple HPV types at each visit given vaginal pH measurement, stratified by age at visit

From: A large, population-based study of age-related associations between vaginal pH and human papillomavirus infection

Vaginal pH Level N Percent with Multiple HPV Types Odds of Testing PCR Positive for Multiple HPV Typesa (95% CI) p-value
All Womenb     
4.0-4.5 4,118 35.1 ref < 0.01
5.0-5.5 2,165 39.4 1.4 (1.1-1.4)  
Age at Visit     
< 25 years     
4.0-4.5 535 46.2 ref 0.01
5.0-5.5 187 56.7 1.5 (1.1-2.1)  
25-34 years     
4.0-4.5 1,501 34.6 ref 0.01
5.0-5.5 483 41.2 1.3 (1.1-1.6)  
35-44 years     
4.0-4.5 1,053 30.4 ref 0.42
5.0-5.5 307 32.9 1.1 (0.8-1.5)  
45-54 years     
4.0-4.5 492 32.1 ref 0.48
5.0-5.5 314 29.6 0.9 (0.6-1.2)  
55-64 years     
4.0-4.5 297 38.7 ref 0.16
5.0-5.5 365 32.9 0.8 (0.5-1.1)  
65+ years     
4.0-4.5 240 35.0 ref < 0.01
5.0-5.5 509 46.0 1.6 (1.1-2.2)  
  1. a Generalized estimating equation models with an independent correlation structure were used to estimate the odds of testing positive for multiple HPV given dichotomous pH measurements at each visit
  2. b Adjusted for age at visit