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Table 1 Risk of testing PCR positive for HPV at each visit given vaginal pH measurement, stratified by age at visit

From: A large, population-based study of age-related associations between vaginal pH and human papillomavirus infection

Vaginal pH Level N Percent with PCR Positive HPV Odds of Testing HPV Positivea (95% CI) p-value (trend)
All Womenb     
4.0 2,139 19.1 0.7 (0.7-0.8)  
4.5 17,201 23.8 refc  
5.0 7,246 25.6 1.2 (1.1-1.3)  
5.5 1,976 25.2 1.2 (1.1-1.4) < 0.001
Age at Visit     
< 25 years     
4.0 114 22.8 0.5 (0.3-0.8)  
4.5 1,417 38.3 ref  
5.0 404 40.8 1.1 (0.9-1.4) 0.009
5.5 82 41.5 1.1 (0.7-1.8)  
25-34 years     
4.0 798 22.7 0.8 (0.7-1.0)  
4.5 5,436 26.5 ref  
5.0 1,517 29.8 1.2 (1.0-1.3)  
5.5 240 29.2 1.1 (0.9-1.5) 0.007
35-44 years     
4.0 842 17.5 0.9 (0.7-1.1)  
4.5 5,244 19.6 ref  
5.0 1,407 21.4 1.1 (1.0-1.3)  
5.5 194 16.0 0.8 (0.5-1.1) 0.088
45-54 years     
4.0 310 13.6 0.8 (0.5-1.1)  
4.5 2,912 17.2 ref  
5.0 1,432 19.8 1.2 (1.0-1.4)  
5.5 372 18.0 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 0.051
55-64 years     
4.0 48 12.5 0.4 (0.2-1.0)  
4.5 1,253 25.1 ref  
5.0 1,194 23.3 0.9 (0.7-1.1)  
5.5 481 23.9 0.9 (0.7-1.2) 0.209
65+ years     
4.0 27 22.2 0.7 (0.3-1.9)  
4.5 939 27.7 ref  
5.0 1,292 29.1 1.1 (0.9-1.3)  
5.5 607 29.7 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 0.773
  1. a Generalized estimating equation models with an independent correlation structure were used to estimate the odds of testing positive for HPV given pH measurements at each visit
  2. b Adjusted for age at visit
  3. c A pH of 4.5 was used as the referent category because it provided the most stable comparison