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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models of predictors of death attributed to medical causes among HIV-1 infected participants

From: Mortality in members of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa and implications for antiretroviral therapy initiation: Results of analyses from a multicenter randomized trial

  Events P-Y Incidence HR (95%CI) P aHR (95%CI) P
CD4 cell count
>500 10 2062 4.8 ref   Ref  
350-499 20 1532 13.1 2.7 (1.2, 5.6) .013 2.2 (1.0, 4.9) .053
250-349 23 1154 19.9 4.1 (1.9, 8.6) <.001 2.6 (1.2, 5.9) .018
<250 18 422 42.7 8.0 (3.6, 17.7) <.001 3.5 (1.4, 8.5) .005
Plasma HIV-1 RNA
<10 K 19 2465 7.7 ref   Ref  
10 K-50 K 5 1340 3.7 0.5 (0.2, 1.2) .12 0.5 (0.2, 1.3) .15
50 K-100 K 7 503 13.9 1.7 (0.7, 4.1) .21 1.4 (0.6, 3.6) .42
>100 K 40 853 46.9 5.7 (3.2, 10.0) <.001 †5.8 (2.9, 11.4) <.001
Antiretroviral use
No 60 4973 12.1 ref   ref  
Yes 11 197 55.8 5.6 (2.7, 11.5) <.001 †9.8 (4.1, 23.8) .001
WHO HIV Stage
1-2 36 4143 8.7 Ref   ND  
3 24 988 24.3 3.1 (1.8, 5.1) <.001   
4 11 39 282.1 15.7 (6.3, 39.4) <.001   
Gender
Men 28 1708 16.4 Ref   Ref  
Women 43 3462 12.4 0.7 (0.4, 1.1) .12 0.9 (0.6, 1.5) .79
Age
18-25 8 736 10.9 Ref   ND  
26-35 29 2417 12.0 1.2 (0.5, 2.6) .67   
36+ 34 2015 16.9 1.7 (0.8, 3.6) .21   
Type of housing
Formal 38 3050 12.5 ref   ND  
Informal 32 2001 16.0 1.6 (1.0, 2.7) .071   
Arm  
Placebo 38 2562 14.8 Ref   ref  
Acyclovir 33 2607 12.7 0.8 (0.5, 1.3) .44 1.0 (0.6, 1.6) .99
  1. HR hazard ratio, N number of deaths, ND not done, NS non-significant in the multivariate model, P-Y person-years. Covariates CD4 count, VL, Antiretroviral use, and WHO stage were all time-varying.
  2. † An interaction term was also present in the model between high VL and ART (p = .004), demonstrating that the hazard of death associated with HIV viral load >100 K is no greater than with viral load <10 K for those on ART (p = .42).