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Table 1 Clinical comparisons of patients with bacterial brain abscesses without or without NPC

From: Bacterial brain abscess in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma following radiotherapy: microbiology, clinical features and therapeutic outcomes

  Non-NPC patients NPC patients p value OR 95% CI
  n = 198 (%) n = 12 (%)    
Mean age, years 45.8±18.2 48.3±12.7    
Sex (male/female) 147/51 9/3 1.0 1.041 0.27-3.99
Median (IQR) GCS on presentation 15 (14, 15) 13.5 (10.3, 15.0) 0.39   
Underlying diseases      
  Congenital heart diseases 2 (0.1) 0 1.0 0.942 0.911-0.975
  Diabetes mellitus 42 (21.2) 1 (8.3) 0.466 0.34 0.042-2.69
  Alcoholism/liver cirrhosis 9 (4.5) 0 1.0 0.94 0.91-0.97
  Chronic otitis media 20 (10.1) 8 (66.6) <0.0001 17.8 4.9-64.4
  Postneurosurgical state 43 (21.7) 5 (41.6) 0.151 2.58 0.778-8.52
Neuroimaging findings at presentation      
Multiple/ Solitary      
 Multiloculated 41 (20.7) 3 (25) 0.718 1.276 0.331-4.929
 Involved temporal lobe 65 (32.8) 8 (66.6) 0.026 4.092 1.19-14.1
 Hydrocephalus 32 (16.2) 3 (25) 0.426 1.729 0.444-6.74
 Post-radiation necrosis 0 (0) 3 (25) <0.001 0.044 0.023-0.083
Clinical features following brain abscess      
 Fever/chills 119 (60.1) 10 (83.3) 0.135 3.319 0.708-15.55
 Headache 108 (54.5) 9 (75) 0.234 2.5 0.657-9.512
 Disturbed consciousness 87 (43.9) 5 (41.6) 0.878 0.911 0.28-2.97
 Septic shock 30 (15.1) 1(8.3) 1.0 0.509 0.063-4.09
 Sensory disturbance 29 (14.6) 0 0.379 0.934 0.898-0.971
 Hemiparesis 95 (47.9) 4 (33.3) 0.324 0.542 0.158-1.859
 Visual disturbance 27 (13.6) 1 (8.3) 1.0 0.576 0.071-4.641
 Neck Stiff neck 59 (29.8) 5 (41.6) 0.519 1.683 0.513-5.517
 Facial palsy 12 (6) 1 (8.3) 0.545 1.409 0.168-11.842
 Seizure 50 (25.2) 0 0.074 0.925 0.885-0.967
 Speech disturbance 8 (4) 0 1.0 0.941 0.909-0.974
 concomitant bacterial meningitis 74 (37.4) 4 (33.3) 1.0 0.838 0.244-2.879
Treatment      
 Combination of Surgical and antimicrobial therapy 162 (81.8) 10 (83.3) 1.0 1.11 0.23-5.29
 Antimicrobial treatment only 36 (18.2) 2 (16.6)    
Outcome      
 Death 41 (20.7) 2 (16.7) 1.0 0.766 1.61-3.63
 Median (IRQ) hospitalization days 44 (28–66.5) 35 (25.5- 56.8) 0.501   
 Median (IQR) GOS at discharge 4 (2–5) 4 (1.3 5.0) 0.544   
 Median (IQR) GOS at a minimum of 18 month follow-up 5 (5–5) 5 (4.3- 5.0) 0.385   
  1. Abbreviations: IVROBA, Intra-ventricular rupture of brain abscess; GOS, Glasgow Outcome Scale; IQR, inter-quartile range; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; β, neuro-imaging findings upon presentation.