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Table 1 Main characteristics of the 112 HIV-infected and 76 HIV-uninfected subjects

From: Dairy calcium intake and lifestyle risk factors for bone loss in hiv-infected and uninfected mediterranean subjects

  HIV+ HIV-
Demographic and lifestyle characteristics
Age years ± SD 47 ± 9.7 49 ± 11.3
Sex (M/F) 63/49 42/34
BMI (kg/m2):   
< 25 77 (68.7) 47 (62)
 ≥ 25-29 28 (25) 23 (30)
 ≥ 30 7 (6.2) 6 (8)
Smoking status: 37 (33)  
Non- smokers   44 (58)
Smokers 58 (53) 21 (28)
Former smokers 16 (14) 11 (14)
Free time physical activity 57 (51) 45 (60)
Heavy workers 16 (14) 10 (13)
Italian espresso caffeine intake1 30 (27) 23 (29)
Alcohol 6 (5) 3 (4)
Diabetes 20 (18) 11 (14)
Education:   
Primary school 34 (30.3) 20 (26)
Secondary school 34 (30.3) 26 (34)
Higher level 44 (39.3) 30 (40)
Postmenopause 18 (36.7) 26 (34)
Fracture 4 (3.5) 2 (3)
Calcium intake
Daily calcium intake (mg/day) (range) 454 (96-1359)  
Dairy intake (times/week) (range) 10 (2-32)  
Daily milk intake (ml/day) (range) 200 (0-800)  
Yogurt intake 36 (32)  
Yogurt intake (ml/week) 0 (0-1750)  
Parmesan intake 100 (89)  
Characteristics of HIV infection   
Time since HIV diagnosis (years) (range) 15 (1-27)  
Drug addiction 28 (25)  
CD4+ T-cell count (cells/μL) (range) 551 (5-1082)  
nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200 (cells/μL) 75 (67)  
Undetectable HIV-RNA 81 (72.3)  
ART 104 (93)  
Duration of ART exposure:   
 < 5 years 18 (17.3)  
 5-9 17 (16.3)  
 ≥ 10 69 (66.3)  
HCV infection 41 (36.6)  
  1. 1 Italian espresso caffeine intake = > 4 cups per day.