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Table 1 Sample characteristics according to the presence of clinical lipodystrophy

From: Lipodystrophy defined by Fat Mass Ratio in HIV-infected patients is associated with a high prevalence of glucose disturbances and insulin resistance

  Without CL With CL P
n (%) 139 206  
Gender [n (%)]    
Male 85 (61.2) 154 (74.8) 0.007
Female 54 (38.8) 52 (25.2)  
Age [years, mean (sd)] 44.2 (12.1) 46.9 (10.7) 0.007
Duration of HIV infection [years, median (IQR)] 6.0 (5.0) 9.0 (5.0) <0.001
cART [years, median (IQR)] 4.0 (5.0) 8.0 (5.0) <0.001
Weight [Kg, mean (sd)] 73.7 (14.1) 66.2 (12.4) <0.001
Height [m, mean (sd)] 1.65 (0.09) 1.66 (0.09) 0.368
BMI [(kg/m2), median (IQR)] 26.3 (5.9) 23.8 (5.1) <0.001
Waist circumference [cm, median (IQR)] 94.0 (17.0) 89.0 (14.5) <0.001
Hip circumference [cm, median (IQR)] 99.0 (11.0) 91.0 (9.0) <0.001
Thigh circumference [cm, mean (sd)] 50.0 (5.5) 46.1 (6.1) <0.001
Arm circumference [cm, mean (sd)] 28.1 (3.1) 26.6 (4.1) <0.001
Neck circumference [cm, mean (sd)] 37.2 (3.7) 37.1 (4.0) 0.940
CD4 cell count [cells/mm3, median (IQR)] 446.5 (342.2) 544.0 (387.0) 0.008
HIV RNA (<50) [n (%)] 93 (81.6) 163 (91.1) 0.017
Smoking history [n (%)]    
Never 61 (44.2) 70 (34.8) 0.219
Current 55 (39.9) 93 (46.3)  
Former 22 (15.9) 38 (18.9)  
HIV risk factor [n (%)]    
Injecting drug user 28 (24.6) 52 (30.6) 0.247
Homosexual contact 10 (8.8) 19 (11.2)  
Heterosexual contact 76 (65.8) 90 (52.9)  
Others 1 (0.9) 9 (5.3)  
Hepatitis C co-infection [n (%)] 31 (25.2) 58 (31.4) 0.300
CDC [n (%)]    
A 62 (54.9) 94 (53.4) 0.037
B 4 (3.5) 0 (0)  
C 47 (41.6) 82 (46.6)  
ART [n (%)]    
IP 67 (61.5) 98 (55.4) 0.310
NNRTI 47 (43.1) 83 (46.9) 0.534
NRTI 104 (95.4) 175 (98.9) 0.110
Hypoglycemic therapy [n (%)]    
Oral anti-diabetic drugs 10.1 % (14) 14.6 % (30) 0.132
Insulin 4.3 % (6) 7.3 % (15) 0.261
Body fat mass by quantitative CT    
Total fat [cm2, median (IQR)] 340.5 (196.6) 213.6 (175.2) <0.001
Central fat [cm2, median (IQR)] 110.8 (111.4) 114.8 (120.5) 0.800
Peripheral fat [cm2, median (IQR)] 186.2 (172.0) 78.7 (104.9) <0.001
Central/peripheral fat ratio [cm2, median (IQR)] 0.51 (0.55) 1.34 (2.15) <0.001
FMR by DXA [median (IQR)] 1.06 (0.57) 1.79 (1.37) <0.001
  1. (CL- clinical lipodystrophy; CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for staging of HIV infection -; cART- combined antiretroviral therapy; BMI- body mass index; FMR – fat mass ratio; DXA –dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ; CT – computed tomography; PI – protease inhibitor; NNRTI –non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NRTI – nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor).