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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and radiographic characteristics of the enrolled patients

From: Impact of sputum gross appearance and volume on smear positivity of pulmonary tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study

  All participant (N = 170) Male TB patient (N = 113) Female TB patient (N = 57) P-value
Age 43.1 ± 19.1 42.7 ± 18.2 44.1 ± 20.7 0.646
Body mass index 21.1 ± 2.8 19.3 ± 6.2 17.3 ± 9.0 0.148
Respiratory symptoms     
 any symptom 66.4% (113/170) 69.0% (78/113) 61.4% (35/57) 0.390
 cough 55.9% (95/170) 58.4% (66/113) 50.9% (29/57) 0.414
 sputum 40.6% (69/170) 44.2% (50/113) 33.3% (19/57) 0.189
 hemoptysis 4.1% (7/170) 3.5% (4/113) 5.3% (3/57) 0.688
 duration (weeks) 6.1 ± 14.0 5.3 ± 9.2 6.8 ± 19.8 0.499
General symptoms 30.6% (52/170) 34.5% (39/113) 22.8% (13/57) 0.081
Smoking     
 Current Smoker 32.9% (56/170) 45.1% (51/113) 8.8% (5/57) <0.001
 Ex-smoker 22.9% (39/170) 24.8% (28/113) 19.3% (11/57) 0.448
 Pack year 10.9 ± 15.6 13.5 ± 15.7 3.4 ± 12.0 <0.001
Radiographic extent     
 minimal 59.4% (101/170) 51.3% (58/113) 75.4% (43/57) 0.009
 moderate 29.4% (50/170) 34.5% (39/113) 19.3% (11/57)  
 far-advanced 11.2% (19/170) 14.2% (16/113) 5.3% (3/57)  
Cavity on chest radiograph 24.1% (41/170) 31.0% (35/113) 10.5% (6/57) 0.004
Smear positivity 42.9% (73/170) 46.0% (52/113) 36.8% (21/57) 0.325
Culture positivity 59.4% (101/170) 62.8% (71/113) 52.6% (30/57) 0.247
  1. Note. ─ Numbers in parenthesis indicate the number of patients. TB tuberculosis.