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Table 1 DUTY eligibility criteria

From: The diagnosis of urinary tract infections in young children (DUTY): protocol for a diagnostic and prospective observational study to derive and validate a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI in children presenting to primary care with an acute illness

Children will be included if: Children will be excluded if:
Aged before their fifth birthday. Aged 5 years and above.
Presenting at a participating NHS primary care site. Parents are unable or unwilling to assist with study.
Presenting with an acute (≤28 days) illness as the main reason for the parent to have requested an appointment. Illness longer than 28 days duration.
  Presenting with trauma as a predominant concern.
Presenting with at least one ’constitutional’ symptom or sign identified by NICE [9] as a potential marker for UTI – that is, fever, vomiting, lethargy/malaise, irritability, poor feeding and failure to thrive and/or at least one urinary symptom identified by NICE [9] as a potential marker of UTI – that is, abdominal pain, jaundice (children <3 months only), haematuria, offensive urine, cloudy urine, loin tenderness, frequency, apparent pain on passing urine and changes to continence. No urinary or constitutional symptoms as defined by NICE [9] and listed in the left hand column.
  Known neurogenic (e.g. spina bifida) or surgically reconstructed bladder or urinary permanent or intermittent catheterisation (for whom different bacterial concentration cut points are used).
  Taking any antibiotics in the last 7 days.
  Taking immunosuppressant medication (e.g. anti-rejection drugs, oral or intramuscular steroids or chemotherapy).
  Already recruited into the DUTY study.
  Involved in current research or have recently (within 28 days) been involved in any research prior to recruitment.
  There will be no recruitment to the study after the last NHS laboratory transport of the day has departed from that primary care site on Fridays.
  For recruitment at A&E settings only: children will not be eligible if their presentation at A&E is a direct result of GP referral.