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Table 4 Potential risk factors for previous infection with schistosoma spp

From: Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia

  Total Antibody-positive Univariate analysis   Multivariate analysis
   N PR PRR (95%CI) p-value PRR (95%CI) p-value
Number of subjects 1207 112 9.3% NA      
Sex          
   Male 521 60 11.5% 1.6 (1.1-2.3) 0.020 1.6 (1.1-2.4) 0.020
   Female 686 52 7.6% 1    1   
Median age in years 38 43   1.01 (0.99-1.03) 0.076    
   (Interquartile range) (29-51) (31-54)        
Country of birth          
   Western country 1118 100 8.9% 1    1   
   Non-Western country 89 12 13.5% 1.6 (0.84-3.0) 0.16 1.1 (0.58-2.2) 0.71
Previous travel to a developing country       0.022    0.14
   Never 221 12 5.4% 1    1   
   1 to 5 times 703 64 9.1% 1.7 (0.92-3.3) 0.086 1.7 (0.83-3.3) 0.15
   6 times or more 283 36 12.7% 2.5 (1.3-5.0) 0.007 2.2 (1.01-4.7) 0.048
Previous travel destinations          
   Not Asia 537 41 7.6% 1      
   Asia 670 71 10.6% 1.4 (0.96-2.1) 0.08    
   Not Latin America 661 51 7.7% 1    1   
   Latin America 546 61 11.2% 1.5 (1.02-2.2) 0.040 1.2 (0.78-1.9) 0.41
   Not Africa 679 56 8.2% 1      
   Africa 528 56 10.6% 1.3 (0.89-1.9) 0.16    
Primary purpose of current travel       0.005    0.010
   Tourism 1032 84 8.1% 1    1   
   Work or education 99 15 15.2% 2.0 (1.1-3.6) 0.021 1.9 (1.1-3.6) 0.030
   Visiting friends/relatives 76 13 17.1% 2.1 (1.2-4.4) 0.009 2.2 (1.2-4.3) 0.016
   N: number of cases          
   PR: prevalence rate          
   PRR: prevalence rate ratio          
   CI: confidence intervals          
   NA: not applicable