Effect of targeting the Tim-3 and PD-1 signaling pathways on live organism shedding following chlamydial infection. (A) All mice were intravaginally infected with live C. muridarum organisms and vaginal swabs were taken along the infection course as indicated along the horizontal line for monitoring the shedding of live organisms. One group of mice were treated with anti-Tim-3 plus anti-PD-L1 neutralization antibodies while the other group with isotype-matched rat IgGs as indicated. (B) The number of live organisms recovered from each swab was expressed as IFUs. After converting into Log10, and the log10 IFUs were used to calculate mean and SD for each mouse group as displayed along the y-axis and at a given time point along the infection course (X-axis). The log10 IFUs along the time course were analyzed with ANOVA, and no significant differences at any time points were found between the control and Tim-3 + PD-L1 groups. (C) Number of mice still positively shedding live chlamydial organisms (IFU+) versus the total of mice (total) in each group (antibody treatment group, αTim-3 & αPD-L1 or isotype control group) were listed as function of infection time (horizontally).