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Table 2 Risk factors for death during hospitalization from pneumococcal meningitis in Salvador, Brazil

From: Clinical outcome of pneumococcal meningitis during the emergence of pencillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: an observational study

Characteristics No. of cases No. deaths (%) Univariate Hazard Ratio (95% CI) Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI) a
Age category     
   <1 years 189 109 (58) 2.58 (1.90-3.50) 2.61 (1.54-4.43)
   1-4 years 55 27 (49) 2.20 (1.49-3.24) 3.14 (1.57-6.29)
   5-14 years 98 10 (10) 0.46 (0.24-0.88) 0.67 (0.28-1.56)
   15-50 years 170 38 (23) 1.0 1.0
   >50 years 33 18 (55) 2.44 (1.61-3.71) 2.14 (1.11-4.10)
Female 193 81 (42) 1.21 (0.97-1.51)  
Underlying conditionb 141 42 (30) 0.75 (0.57-1.00)  
Clinical presentation     
Seizures prior to hospitalization 181 83 (46) 1.40 (1.13-1.74)  
Coma on admission 83 47 (57) 1.69 (1.34-2.12) 2.55 (1.66-3.91)
Laboratory values     
Blood leukocyte count < 15,000 cells/μL 200 89 (44) 1.36 (1.09-1.69) 3.53 (2.18-5.71)
CSF protein >300 mg/dLc 308 125 (41) 1.36 (1.07-1.73) 1.88 (1.12-3.17)
Pneumococcal isolate resistant to penicillind 93 45 (48) 1.39 (1.09-1.78) 1.62 (1.08-2.43)
Serotype 14 74 36 (49) 1.38 (1.06-1.80) 0.52 (0.29-0.91)
Treatment     
Discordant therapy e 22 10 (45) 1.24 (0.77-1.98)  
Systemic corticosteroids f 412/539 159 (39) 1.25 (0.94-1.68)  
ICU admission 235/548 130 (55) 2.37 (1.88-2.99)  
  1. NOTE: CI, confidence interval; MIC, minimal inhibitory concentration; ICU, intensive care unit.
  2. a Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazards model including age category, presence of coma, CSF protein >300 mg/dL, blood leukocyte count <15,000 cells/μL, penicillin MIC >0.06 μg/ml and serotype 14.
  3. b Includes HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, asplenia, sickle cell disease, congestive heart failure, other disorders associated with immunodepression and recurrent meningitis.
  4. c CSF protein measured at time of admission; data missing for 12 case patients.
  5. d Defined as penicillin MIC >0.06 μg/ml for a pneumococcal isolate from a patient with meningitis.
  6. e Antibiotic therapy was defined as discordant when patients did not receive any antibiotic to which the S. pneumoniae isolate was susceptible during the initial 24 hours of hospitalization.
  7. f Defined as initiation of corticosteroid therapy within 48 hours of admission; information missing for 9 case patients.