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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients with and without hepatitis C coinfection

From: Evaluation of endothelial function and subclinical atherosclerosis in association with hepatitis C virus in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study

Variable Hepatitis C virus +
(N = 63)
Hepatitis C virus -
(N = 138)
P
Age, years (median [IQR]) 43.7 (39.4-47.0) 43.5 (35.6-49.5) 0.55
Men, no. (%) 53 (84.1) 100 (72.5) 0.08
Category C of the CDC, no. (%) 13 (20.6) 49 (35.5) 0.04
IDU, no. (%) 58 (92.1) 11 (8.0) <0.001
MSM, no. (%) 0 56 (40.6) <0.001
Viral load < 50 copies/mL, no. (%) 44 (69.8) 90 (65.2) 0.63
CD4 cell count, cells/μL (median [IQR]) 530 (280-750) 495 (317.5-652.5) 0.86
On antiretroviral therapy, no. (%) 56 (88.9) 115 (83.3) 0.39
Duration of antiretroviral therapy exposure, years (median [IQR]) 9.0 (3.75-10.0) 6.0 (1.88-10.0) 0.25
Non nucleoside analog-based regimen, no. (%) 17 (27.0) 53 (38.7) 0.11
Protease inhibitor-based regimen, no. (%) 36 (57.1) 58 (42.3) 0.07
Lipodystrophy1, no. (%) 19 (30.2) 47 (34.1) 0.63
Current smoker, no. (%) 53 (84.1) 71 (51.4) <0.001
Dyslipidemia, no. (%) 12 (19) 56 (40.6) 0.002
Lipid-lowering therapy 5 (7.9) 42 (30.4) <0.001
Hypertension, no. (%) 8 (12.7) 29 (21.0) 0.17
Diabetes, no. (%) 3 (4.8) 14 (10.1) 0.28
Pre-existing cardiovascular disease, no. (%) 2 (3.2) 3 (2.2) 0.65
Body mass index, Kg/m2 (median [IQR]) 24.05 (21.56-27.86) 25.0 (21.99-28.32) 0.48
Hepatitis B virus, no. (%) 0 4 (3.0) 0.30
Hepatitis C viral load, copies/mL (median [IQR]) 748,056 (145,564-3,204,245) - -
APRI index (median [IQR]) 0.67 (0.39-1.29) 0.22 (0.18-0.31) <0.001
   Genotypes 1 and 4 (n = 37) 0.67 (0.40-1.11)   
   Genotypes 2 and 3 (n = 24) 0.73 (0.38-1.62)   0.933
FIB-4 index (median [IQR]) 1.40 (0.98-3.27) 0.91 (0.66-1.17) <0.001
   Genotypes 1 and 4 (n = 37) 1.52 (1.09-2.74)   
   Genotypes 2 and 3 (n = 24) 1.42 (0.91-4.14)   0.863
Waist-to-hip ratio (median [IQR]) 0.94 (0.89-0.98) 0.93 (0.88-0.98) 0.72
Metabolic syndrome2, no. (%) 14 (22.2) 42 (30.4) 0.31
Framingham risk at 10 years4, % (median [IQR]) 5 (2-8) 4 (1-10) 0.69
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg (median [IQR]) 122 (114-133) 130 (118.5-142) 0.006
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg (median [IQR]) 76 (69-83) 79 (71-85) 0.21
Fasting total cholesterol, mg/dL (median [IQR]) 163 (146-186) 185 (158.8-213.3) 0.001
Fasting LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL (median [IQR]) 104 (86-123) 119.5 (100-140) 0.001
Fasting HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL (median [IQR]) 41.2 (34.5-50.2) 43.5 (36.9-51.2) 0.56
Fasting triglycerides, mg/dL (median [IQR]) 131 (86-171) 137.5 (94.8-197.5) 0.30
Fasting glucose, mg/dL (median [IQR]) 87.0 (81-99) 87.0 (80.8-97) 0.93
VCAM-1, ηg/mL (median [IQR]) 931.4 (707.8-1606.5) 766.6 (630.3-974.5) <0.001
ICAM-1, ηg/mL (median [IQR]) 492.6 (354.4-713.1) 314.3 (251.9-408.3) <0.001
Baseline brachial artery diameter, cm (median [IQR]) 4.30 (3.87-4.53) 4.14 (3.60-4.60) 0.20
Brachial artery FMD, % (median [IQR]) 6.21 (2.86-9.62) 5.54 (2.13-9.13) 0.37
   Genotypes 1 and 4 (n = 37) 6.78 (2.01-11.80)   
   Genotypes 2 and 3 (n = 24) 5.09 (3.02-8.29)   0.323
Brachial artery nitroglycerine MD, % (median [IQR]) 18.35 (15.27-25.65) 19.68 (12.31-24.57) 0.86
   Genotypes 1 and 4 (n = 37) 19.44 (15.50-28.16)   
   Genotypes 2 and 3 (n = 24) 18.22 (11.62-22.08)   0.163
Carotid IMT, mm (median [IQR]) 0.61 (0.55-0.65) 0.60 (0.53-0.72) 0.39
   Genotypes 1 and 4 (n = 37) 0.59 (0.52-0.65)   
   Genotypes 2 and 3 (n = 24) 0.63 (0.55-0.68)   0.153
Carotid plaques, no. (%) 25 (39.7) 48 (38.4) 0.53
  1. All continuous variables are expressed as median (interquartile range). Categorical variables represent number (%).
  2. IDU, intravenous drug users; MSM, men who have sex with men; FMD, flow-mediated dilatation; MD, mediated dilatation; IMT, intima-media thickness; IQR, interquartile range.
  3. APRI = [AST (U/L)/upper limit of normal (U/L)] × 100/platelets (109/L).
  4. FIB-4 = Age × AST (U/L)/[platelets (109/L) × ALT1/2 (U/L)]
  5. 1Lipodystrophy was defined as the presence of body-fat changes that could be clearly recognised by both the patient and the doctor.
  6. 2Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the new International Diabetes Federation criteria. by the existence of central obesity (waist circumference in females > 80 cm and in males > 94 cm in Europeans) plus two of the following factors: raised triglycerides (> 150 mg/dl), reduced HDL cholesterol (< 50 mg/dl in females and < 40 mg/dl in males), raised blood pressure (≥130/85 mm Hg), and raised fasting plasma glucose (> 100 mg/dl), or specific therapy for any of such conditions.
  7. 3P for the comparison between genotypes 1 and 4 with genotypes 2 and 3.
  8. 4The 10-year risk of developing myocardial infarction or coronary death was calculated for each patient with the Framingham equation.