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Table 4 Predictors for in-hospital death in 200 episodes of IE among patients admitted to the Veterans General Hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan over a five-year period (2004 to 2009) as determined by multivariate analysis

From: Non-nosocomial healthcare-associated infective endocarditis in Taiwan: an underrecognized disease with poor outcome

Risk factors All Death Univariate Multivariate 1
    OR (95%CI) pvalue OR (95%CI) pvalue
Age 65 years 64 26 3.2 (1.6-6.2) < 0.001   
Female gender 48 20 2.9 (1.4-5.8) 0.002   
NNHCA IE 30 15 3.9 (1.7-8.6) 0.001 6.0 (2.3-16.1) < 0.001
Nosocomial IE 22 9 2.3 (0.9-5.8) 0.068   
Prosthetic valve 18 9 3.4 (1.3-9.2) 0.019   
Staphylococci 115 35 2.0 (1.0-4.0) 0.039 3.0 (1.1-8.0) 0.027
Streptococci 57 6 0.3 (0.1-0.7) 0.003   
Underlying conditions       
Diabetes mellitus 52 24 4.0 (2.0-8.0) < 0.001   
Hypertension 54 18 1.8 (0.9-3.5) 0.098   
Predisposing heart condition 49 14 1.3 (0.6-2.6) 0.506   
IVDU 59 10 0.5 (0.2-1.1) 0.089   
Charlson comorbidity index 2 68 30 4.4 (2.3-8.7) < 0.001   
Symptoms       
Constitutional 142 34 0.8 (0.4-1.7) 0.589   
Cardiopulmonary 65 18 1.2 (0.6-2.4) 0.542   
Neurological 47 15 1.6 (0.8-3.2) 0.211   
Gastrointestinal 14 4 1.2 (0.4-4.1) 0.749   
Musculoskeletal 24 5 0.8 (0.3-2.2) 0.615   
Signs       
Fever 165 41 1.0 (0.4-2.2) 0.914   
Heart murmur 83 19 0.8 (0.4-1.6) 0.562   
Alteration in consciousness 34 15 3.0 (1.4-6.4) 0.005 3.9 (1.4-11.1) 0.012
Shock 20 13 7.2 (2.7-19.3) < 0.001 7.8 (2.4-25.2) 0.001
Unrecognition on admission 2 94/162 25 1.3 (0.6-2.7) 0.509   
Delay of appropriate antibiotics 3 71/165 24 2.9 (1.4-6.2) 0.004 3.7 (1.5-9.1) 0.004
  1. 1 Adjusted for age and sex
  2. 2 Patients who were not suspected or diagnosed to have IE within the first 24 hours of medical access.
  3. 3 Patients didn't receive antibiotics with in vitro activities against the pathogens within the first 24 hours of medical access.
  4. IE, infective endocarditis; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; NNHCA, non-nosocomial healthcare-associated; IVDU, intravenous drug user