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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate assessment of factors associated with incident genital warts over three years

From: Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

Characteristic Number of events/person-years Unadjusted HRa(95% CI) Adjusted HRb(95% CI) P-value
1. Among all women:     
   HIV status, nadir CD4+ count     
HIV seronegative 8/756 1.0 1.0  
HIV-1+, CD4 >200cells/μL 18/245 7.29 (3.0-17.70) 6.51 (2.38-17.78) <0.001
HIV-1+, CD4 ≤200 cells/μL 24/165 14.92 (6.21-35.85) 19.13 (6.94-52.71) <0.001
Enrolment variables:     
   Age groups, years     
16-24 9/454 1.0 1.0  
25-34 28/414 3.29 (1.40-7.74) 1.74 (0.69-4.42) 0.24
>34 13/294 2.19 (0.84-5.72) 0.83 (0.29-2.37) 0.73
   Education     
None 32/510 1.0   
Primary/Above 18/655 0.43 (0.22-0.86) 0.45 (0.23-0.88) 0.02
   Age at first sex, years     
10-17 41/889 1.0   
18-29 9/275 0.71 (0.30-1.67)   
   Smoking 5/63 1.76 (0.50-6.15) 1.56 (0.50-4.86) 0.44
   HSV-2 positive serology 43/676 4.33 (1.81-10.38) 0.86 (0.31-2.38) 0.77
   History of pregnancy 47/954 3.42 (0.96-12.16) 1.30 (0.33-5.11) 0.71
Concurrent variables:     
   Number of sex partners in past week     
0 10/241 1.0 1.0  
1-9 30/753 1.05 (0.48-2.27) 1.46 (0.66-3.22) 0.35
≥10 10/116 2.44 (0.85-7.05) 3.16 (1.11-8.95) 0.03
   Contraceptive use     
None/Other 40/958 1.0 1.0  
Hormonal contraception 4/156 0.64 (0.21-1.94) 0.85 (0.28-2.61) 0.77
Injectable contraception 4/34 2.95 (0.81-10.75) 3.24 (0.91-11.51) 0.07
   Practices regular vaginal douching 43/987 1.01 (0.33-3.11)   
   Condom use with clients/partners     
Sometimes/Never 31/799 1.0   
Always 19/311 1.75 (0.92-3.33)   
   Days since last menstruationc     
≤15 27/503 1.0   
>15 14/415 0.69 (0.35-1.37)   
   Bacterial vaginosis 18/226 2.11 (1.12-4.00) 2.17 (1.13-4.18) 0.02
   Trichomonas vaginalis 1/30 1.18 (0.13-10.53)   
   Genital ulceration 5/23 4.66 (1.55-14.03) 3.29 (1.13-9.55) 0.03
2. Among HIV-1 positive women only:     
   On HAART at prior visit 15/94 1.39 (0.66-2.95) 1.50 (0.61-3.70) 0.38
   Highest log10 viral load in the past 3 years   1.35 (0.99-1.83) 1.13 (0.78-1.65) 0.51
   CD4+ count at prior visit (per 100 cells/μL increase)   0.73 (0.57-0.93) 0.79 (0.61-1.02) 0.07
  1. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; HAART: highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  2. a Determined by Cox regression with shared frailty; b Adjusted for HIV-1 serostatus and nadir CD4+ count, age group, educational status, smoking, history of pregnancy and HSV-2 serostatus at enrolment, and concurrent number of weekly sex partners, contraception, genital ulcerations and bacterial vaginosis; c Women with amenorrhea and menopause were excluded from this group.