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Table 3 Summary of patient and treatment characteristics, and complications believed to be associated with antiviral resistance in the reviewed case reports

From: Systematic review of influenza resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitors

Study Period Flu type Mutation Proph/ Treat Competent/ Compromised In/Out Patient Age Days to resistance detection Complications associated with resistance
Oseltamivir resistance
Baz52 2005-2006 H3N2 E596G
E119V
I222V
I223V
Treat Compromised In 4 m 14 Respiratory complications, prolonged viral shedding (about 90 days)
Baz52 2009 H1N1 H275Y Postexp Proph Competent Out 59y 8 None. Recovered after 2 weeks
Campanini55 2009 H3N2 H274Y Treat Compromised In 2y 18 42 days to resolution of flu symptoms
Cane56 2010 H1N1 H275Y Treat Compromised In 3y NA 1 month to resolution of flu symptoms
CDC-Weekly(1)57 2009 H1N1 H275Y
I223V
Proph Competent Out Teens 27 None ("uneventful recovery")
CDC-Weekly(1)57 2009 H1N1 H275Y
I223V
Proph Competent Out Teens 14 None ("uneventful recovery")
CDC-Weekly(2)48 2009 H1N1 H275Y Treat Compromised In Teens 30 2 months to recovery
CDC-Weekly(2)48 2009 H1N1 H275Y Treat Compromised In 40y 30 2 months to revovery, prolonged neutron-penia and protracted bone marrow recovery, neutropenic fever, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus bacteremia, and Pneumocystis
Couturier(1)59 2009 H1N1 H275Y Treat Compromised In 69y 9 Renal function declined. Died after 17 days.
Couturier(2)59 2009 H1N1 H275Y Treat Compromised In 66y 21 Recovered after 1 month. Caught fever again after 3 months and died.
Couturier(3)59 2009 H1N1 H275Y Proph Competent Out 36y NA None
De Jong54 2005 H5N1 H274Y Treat Competent In 13y 5 Patient died. Suffered from hypoxia and pneumonia
Dulek60 2009 H1N1 H275Y Treat Compromised In 18 m 22 52 days of viral shedding, progressive pulmonary disease
Gaur61 2009 H1N1 H275Y Treat Compromised In 10y 14 None reported
Glikman62 2009 H1N1 H275Y Treat Compromised In 11y 13 Prolonged fever (> 21 days)
Hill-Cawthorne63 2009 H1N1 H275Y Treat Compromised Out 56y 20 Prolonged fever and cough (2 months)
Ison(1)64 2001 NA Asp198Asn
Aer285Ala
Proph Compromised In 2y 42 Continued rhinorrhea and dry cough, progressive respitatory distress, gastrointestinal bleeding. Eventually died.
Ison(2)64 2002 H3N2 Arg142Gly
Tyr195Phe
Treat Compromised In 63y 90 Prolonged cough and nasal congestion
Ison(3)64 2003 H3N2 Glu119Val
Ser31Asn
Treat Compromised In 60y NA Progressive respiratory compromise and pneumonia, continued respiratory failure. Died of haemorrhagic stroke.
Le53 2005 N5N1 H274Y Both Competent Out 14y 4 None. Recovered after 2 weeks.
Memoli65 2009 H1N1 Amino-acid position 245-248 Treat Compromised In 43y 5 None. Recovered after 2 weeks.
Nguyen**66 2009 H1N1 H27Y Treat Compromised In 14y 17 Died of complications after 2 months
    I223R       
Rousset**67 2009 H1N1 H275Y Treat Compromised In 24y 6 Patient died at day 140
Speers68 2009 H1N1 H275Y Treat Compromised In 38y 3 None. Eventually died
Thabet69 2009 H1N1 H274Y Treat Compromised In 3y 10 None reported.
Van der Vries*70 2009 H1N1 H275Y Treat Compromised In 5y 7 Resolutions of symptoms after 3 months
Zanamivir resistance
Gubareva16 1998 NA 152Argr-Lys Treat Compromised In 18 m 8 Not resolved, patients died.
Van der Vries*70 2009 H1N1 I223R Treat Compromised In 5y 56 Resolutions of symptoms after 3 months
  1. * patient was treated with oseltamivir first, zanamivir second, and developed resistance to both antivirals
  2. ** patient also had reduced sensitivity to zanamivir