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Table 1 Urinary bacterial Anti-Adhesion Activity (AAA) detected with Mannose-resistant Hemagglutination (MRHA) assay (A) and urinary bacterial adhesion to T24 cells (B) expressed as Adhesion Index (AI) following consumption of increasing doses of cranberry powder standardized for 18, 36 or 72 mg of proanthocyanidins (PAC) vs placebo by participants in the 4 countries.

From: Dosage effect on uropathogenic Escherichia coli anti-adhesion activity in urine following consumption of cranberry powder standardized for proanthocyanidin content: a multicentric randomized double blind study

A AAA P
Regimen Placebo 18 mg PAC 36 mg PAC 72 mg PAC 18 vs 36 36 vs 72 6 h vs 24 h Sp-Fr vs Ja-Hu
Spain (n = 8)         
   0 h 0% [0-0] 0% [0-0] 0% [0-0] ND     
   1-6 h 0% [0-0] 50% [50-100] 100% [50-100] ND 0.002 ND <0.001 <0.001
   24 h 0% [0-0] 0% [0-0] 12.5% [0-50] ND 0.01 ND <0.001  
France (n = 8)         
   0 h 0% [0-0] 0% [0-0] 0% [0-0] ND     
   1-6 h 0% [0-0] 50% [50-100] 75% [50-100] ND 0.005 ND <0.001  
   24 h 0% [0-0] 0% [0-0] 0% [0-0] ND NS ND <0.001  
Japan (n = 8)         <0.001
   0 h 12.5% [0-50] ND 25% [0-50] 25% [0-50]     
   1-6 h 0% [0-0] ND 100% [100-100] 100% [100-100] ND NS <0.001  
   24 h 0% [0-0] ND 12.5% [0-50] 75% [50-100] ND 0.001 0.005  
Hungary (n = 8)         
   0 h 0% [0-0] ND 0% [0-0] 0% [0-0]     
   1-6 h 0% [0-0] ND 87.5% [50-100] 100% [100-100] ND NS <0.001  
   24 h 0% [0-0] ND 25% [0-50] 25% [0-50] ND NS <0.001  
Total (n = 32)         
   0 h 0.3% [0-0] 0% [0-0] 0.6% [0-50] 12.5% [0-50]     
   1-6 h 0% [0-0] 50% [50-100] 90.6% [50-100] 100% [100-100] 0.003 NS <0.001 ND
   24 h 0% [0-0] 0% [0-0] 12.5% [0-50] 50% [50-100] 0.01 <0.001 <0.001 ND
B AI Median [Range] P
Regimen Placebo 18 mg PAC 36 mg PAC 72 mg PAC 18 vs 36 36 vs 72 6 h vs 24 h Sp-Fr vs Ja-Hu
Spain (n = 8)         
   1-6 h 18.5 [15-22] 8.5 [5-14] 5.0 [1-11] - <0.001 ND <0.001 <0.001
   24 h 20.0 [18-22] 14.5 [10-18] 12.5 [5-17] - <0.001 ND <0.001  
France (n = 8)         
   1-6 h 17.5 [15-28] 8.0 [5-16] 4.0 [2-10] - <0.001 ND <0.001  
   24 h 19.5 [18-25] 17.5 [12-22] 5.0 [2-10] - <0.001 ND <0.001  
Japan (n = 8)         <0.001
   1-6 h 21.5 [18-28] - 5.0 [1-9] 3.5 [1-6] ND NS <0.001  
   24 h 25.5 [17-29] - 13.5 [10-18] 10.0 [2-15] ND 0.01 <0.001  
Hungary (n = 8)         
   1-6 h 18.5 [15-22] - 2.0 [1-5] 1.0 [1-5] ND NS <0.001  
   24 h 20 [15-25] - 9.5 [5-25] 4.5 [2-10] ND <0.001 <0.001  
Total (n = 32)         
   1-6 h 21.5 [15-28] 10.5 [5-16] 5.9 [1-11] 2.5 [1-6] <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 ND
   24 h 22.3 [15-29] 16.0 [10-22] 14.5 [2-25] 9.9 [2-15] <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 ND
  1. The results are representative of at least three independent trials. NS, not significant; ND, not determined. 0 h, pre-cranberry consumption collection