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Table 3 Antibiotic resistance in relation to background characteristics of the 421 S. pneumoniae carriers.

From: Decreased Streptococcus pneumoniae susceptibility to oral antibiotics among children in rural Vietnam: a community study

Characteristics
Total number of carrier in bracket
Percentage of resistant strains among total carriers within each category
  TET PEN G
(AMX,
AMP)
PEN V CTX SXT ERY CIP MDR
Sex         
- FemaleR (187) 68* 5 72 3 78 67 25 56
- Male (234) 80* (**) 3 77 1 79 72 31 63
Age         
- 6-23 monthsR (217) 75 4 76 3 78 73 27 61
- 24-60 months (204) 74 2 74 2 78 67 29 59
Region         
- LowlandR (145) 77 2 78 0* 74* 68* 32 55*
- Highland (146) 72 6 77 5* 74* 64* 24 56*
- Mountains (130) 75 4 69 2* 88* (**) 78* 29 70* (**)
Economic status         
- Under averageR (203) 79 5 76 3 80 72 31 61
- Average or upper (218) 71 3 74 1 76 68 26 59
Prior antibiotic use         
- NoR (183) 73 3 68* 0.5* 73* 67 26 56
- Yes (238) 76 5 80*(**) 3* 82*(**) 72 30 63
Total (421) 75 4 75 2 78 70 28 60
  1. * p < 0.05: significant different between groups using χ2 test.
  2. ** Significant difference between group vs. reference using multiple logistic regression analysis.
  3. R Reference groups in multiple logistic regression analysis
  4. TET: tetracycline, PEN G: benzylpenicillin, AMX: amoxicillin, AMP: ampicillin, PEN V: phenoxymethylpenicillin, CTX: cefotaxime, SXT: co-trimoxazole, ERY: erythromycin, CIP: ciprofloxacin, MDR: multidrug-resistant.