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Table 2 Illnesses (n = 199) in 101 HIV-1 infected and 16 HIV-1 uninfected patients who experienced clinical deterioration during 24 weeks of antituberculosis treatment

From: Clinical deterioration during antituberculosis treatment in Africa: Incidence, causes and risk factors

  HIV-1 infected HIV-1 uninfected
number of illnesses = n, (total number of patients = pnts) 180 (101) 19 (16)
1. Tuberculosis related illnesses, n (pnts) 49 (43) 5 (5)
TB-IRIS 22 -
Paradoxical reaction 17 4
MDR-TB1 4 1
Deterioration due to poor adherence 5 -
Low rifampin concentration in comparison to the recommended range 1 -
2. AIDS-defining illnesses, n (pnts) 29 (21) -
Oesophageal candida 11 -
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia2 5 -
Cryptococcal meningitis 4 -
Cytomegalovirus retinitis 3 -
Other3 6 -
3. Non-AIDS defining HIV-1 related infections, n (pnts) 27 (25) -
Superficial herpes infection4 9 -
Bacterial infection5 9 -
Fungal (oral/vaginal/superficial) infection 9 -
4. Co-morbid illnesses, n (pnts) 76 (59) 6 14 (11) 7
  1. Key:
  2. TB = tuberculosis; TB-IRIS = TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
  3. 1 MDR-TB: Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to rifampin and isoniazid
  4. 2All 5 patients diagnosed with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia received trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole chemoprophylaxis (160/800 mg daily).
  5. 3 Other = HIV-1 associated nephropathy (2), HIV-1 associated encephalopathy (2), Disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma (2)
  6. 4 5 patients diagnosed with herpes simplex, 4 patients diagnosed with herpes zoster (all < 1 month duration)
  7. 5 Urinary tract infection (3) - E. coli, Klebsiella sp., enterococcus; Pelvic inflammatory disease (3); H. influenza pneumonia (1); otitis media(1); carbuncle(1)
  8. 6 76 illnesses diagnosed in 59 patients:
  9. CD4 > 350 cells/mm 3 = 7 illnesses diagnosed in 7 patients: deep venous thrombosis (2); sacroiliitis (1); acute asthmatic attack (1); cardiomyopathy (1); severe epistaxis (1); supra-condylar fracture (1),
  10. CD4200 - 350 cells/mm 3 = 12 illnesses diagnosed in 7 patients: enteric illness with no pathogen isolated (4); hyperglycaemic emergency (2); seizures, cause not determined (2); acute asthmatic attack (1); efavirenz side-effect (1); deep venous thrombosis (1); haemorrhoids/fistula-in-ano (1),
  11. CD4 < 200 cells/mm 3 = 56 illnesses in 44 patients: peripheral neuropathy (12); enteric illness with no pathogen isolated (8); deep venous thrombosis (7); dermatitis (4); cerebrovascular accident (3); scabies (3); minor traumatic injury (3); pneumothorax (2); pancreatitis (1); cardiomyopathy (1); miscarriage (1); cryptococcal IRIS (immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome) adenitis (1); drug induced hepatitis (1); cause not determined but patient subsequently improved (9).
  12. 7 14 illnesses diagnosed in 11 patients: Drug side effect (3) - hydrochlorothiazide (1), pyrazinamide (1), kanamycin (1); hyperglycaemic emergency (2); post-TB bronchiectasis (1); peripheral neuropathy (1); pulmonary silicosis (1); miscarriage (1); cause not determined but patient subsequently improved (5)