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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants, by healthcare worker status

From: Seasonal influenza risk in hospital healthcare workers is more strongly associated with household than occupational exposures: results from a prospective cohort study in Berlin, Germany, 2006/07

Exposure (n = 736 unless otherwise specified) Healthcare workers (N = 250) Non-Healthcare workers (N = 486) P (chi-squared, unless otherwise specified)
Age, mean (years) 35.7 39.2 P < 0.001
(Kruskal-Wallis)
Male sex (%) 57 (22.8%) 160 (32.9%) P < 0.001
Immunisation in current season (2006/07) (n = 736) 104 (41.6%) 153 (31.5%) 0.006
   Immunised 2005/6 (n = 728) 103 (41.7%) 184 (38.3%) 0.37
   Immunised 2004/5 (n = 712) 77 (32.1%) 162 (34.3%) 0.55
   Immunised 2003/4 (n = 696) 53 (22.7%) 132 (28.6%) 0.10
Current smoker at recruitment (n = 726) 99 (40.6%) 125 (25.9%) P < 0.01
Children at home 87 (34.8%) 144 (29.6%) 0.15
Patient contacts (per typical day) 30.8 Not applicable  
Contacts at work (per typical day, excluding patients), mean (n = 730) 14.3 13.8 0.021
(Kruskal-Wallis)
Contacts at home (per typical day), mean 2.7 3.5 P < 0.001
(Kruskal-Wallis)
Car owner (n = 727) 199 (80.6%) 352 (73.3%) 0.03
Regular use of public transport (n = 733) 128 (51.6%) 303 (62.5%) 0.005
Preseasonal titer of <40 against A/California/07/2004 (H3N2) among non-vaccinated 97 (69.7%) 269 (79.1%) 0.03