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Table 2 Combined multiple logistic regression model including socio-demographic and behavioral variables for association with seroprevalent HSV-2 and syphilis in men.

From: Population-based seroprevalence of HSV-2 and syphilis in Andhra Pradesh state of India

Factor N (% of Total) HSV-2*    Syphilis †   
   N (% HSV-2) Odds of having HSV-2 with univariate analysis (95% CI) Adjusted odds of having HSV-2 with multiple logistic regression (95% CI) N (% Syphilis) Odds of having syphilis with univariate analysis (95% CI) Adjusted odds of having syphilis with multiple logistic regression (95% CI)
Men (N = 6,235)       
Sociodemographics        
Age (years)        
   15-19 1175 (18.8) 30 (2.6) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 6 (0.5) 1.00 (ref)  
   20-24 1086 (17.4) 42 (3.9) 1.54 (0.95-2.47) 1.07 (0.62-1.84) 14 (1.3) 2.54 (0.97-6.65)  
   25-29 972 (15.6) 56 (5.8) 2.33 (1.49-3.67) 1.36 (0.77-2.40) 28 (2.9) 5.78 (2.38-14.01)  
   30-34 833 (13.4) 53 (6.4) 2.59 (1.64-4.10) 1.13 (0.62-2.06) 24 (2.9) 5.78 (2.35-14.20)  
   35-39 842 (13.5) 70 (8.3) 3.46 (2.23-5.36) 1.74 (0.97-3.11) 25 (3.0) 5.96 (2.43-14.60)  
   40-44 628 (10.1) 43 (6.8) 2.81 (1.74-4.52) 1.56 (0.84-2.88) 19 (3.0 6.08 (2.42-15.30)  
   45-49 699 (11.2) 69 (9.9) 4.18 (2.69-6.49) 2.60 (1.46-4.62) § 18 (2.6) 5.15 (2.03-13.04)  
Standard of Living Index ¶        
   0-16 1564 (25.1) 107 (6.8) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 51 (3.3) 1.00 (ref)  
   17-22 1593 (25.5) 100 (6.3) 0.91 (0.69-1.21) 0.95 (0.69-1.29) 34 (2.1) 0.65 (0.42-1.0)  
   23-29 1529 (24.5) 89 (5.8) 0.84 (0.63-1.13) 0.95 (0.68-1.33) 23 (1.5) 0.45 (0.28-0.75)  
   30-54 1548 (24.8) 67 (4.3) 0.62 (0.45-0.84) 0.64 (0.43-0.95) § 26 (1.7) 0.51 (0.31-0.82)  
Education        
   None 1573 (25.2) 103 (6.5) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 47 (3.0) 1.00 (ref)  
   Class 1-10 3180 (51.0) 203 (6.4) 0.97 (0.76-1.24) 1.12 (0.85-1.49) 73 (2.3) 0.76 (0.53-1.11)  
   Class 11-12 518 (8.3) 24 (4.6) 0.69 (0.44-1.09) 1.18 (0.71-1.97) 3 (0.6) 0.19 (0.06-0.61)  
   More than Class 12 960 (15.4) 33 (3.4) 0.51 (0.34-0.76) 0.82 (0.50-1.33) 11 (1.1) 0.38 (0.19-0.73)  
Occupation        
   Other than categories below 4897 (78.5) 253 (5.2) 1.00 (ref)   86 (1.8)   1.00 (ref)
   Transport Related 438 (7.0) 39 (8.9) 1.79 (1.26-2.55)   24 (5.5) 3.24 (2.04-5.16) 2.18 (1.30-3.65)
   Field Related 822 (13.2) 62 (7.5) 1.50 (1.12-2.0)   23 (2.8) 1.61 (1.01-2.57) 1.32 (0.81-2.17)
   Begging/Sex Work 18 (0.3) 5 (27.8) 7.06 (2.50-19.96)   0 (0) Model does not converge Model does not converge
   Unemployed 60 (1.0) 4 (6.7) 1.31 (0.47-3.64)   1 (1.7) 0.95 (0.13-6.9) 0.74 (0.09-5.77)
Caste        
   Forward 2,323 (37.3) 115 (5.0) 1.00 (ref)   36 (1.5) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
   Backward 1,532 (24.6) 98 (6.4) 1.31 (0.99-1.73)   47 (3.1) 2.01 (1.30-3.12) 1.66 (1.02-2.71) §
   Scheduled 1285 (20.6) 80 (6.2) 1.27 (0.95-1.71)   27 (2.1) 1.36 (0.82-2.26) 1.01 (0.57-1.79)
   Scheduled Tribe 219 (3.5) 8 (3.7) 0.73 (0.35-1.51)   3 (1.4) 0.88 (0.27-2.89) 0.61 (0.18-2.13)
   None 876 (14.0) 62 (7.1) 1.46 (1.06-2.01)   21 (2.4) 1.56 (0.91-2.69) 1.43 (0.79-2.59)
Place of Residence        
   Rural 3139 (50.3) 120 (3.8) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 55 (1.8) 1.00 (ref)  
   Urban 3,096 (49.7) 243 (7.8) 2.14 (1.71-2.68) 2.21 (1.71-2.86) || 79 (2.6) 1.47 (1.04-2.08)  
Health and Hygiene        
History of Tattoo        
   No 5747 (92.2) 301 (5.2) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 110 (1.9) 1.00 (ref)  
   Yes 483 (7.8) 62 (12.8) 2.66 (1.99-3.56) 1.66 (1.18-2.33) § 24 (5.0) 2.68 (1.71-4.21)  
History of Transfusion        
   No 6073 (97.5) 343 (5.6) 1.00 (ref)   130 (2.1) 1.00 (ref)  
   Yes 156 (2.5) 20 (12.8) 1.58 (1.20-2.07)   4 (2.6) 1.20 (0.44-3.30)  
Circumcision        
   Uncircumcised 5156 (83.6) 278 (5.4) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 107 (2.1)   
   Circumcised 1011 (16.4) 80 (7.9) 1.51 (1.16-1.95) 1.37 (1.03-1.82) § 25 (2.5) 1.20 (0.77-1.86)  
Toilet Facility at Home        
   Own Flush 1547 (24.8) 83 (5.4) 1.00 (ref)   21 (1.4) 1.00 (ref)  
   Share Flush/Own Pit Toilet 1848 (29.6) 129 (7.0) 1.26 (1.01-1.57)   42 (2.3) 2.82 (1.34-5.90)  
   Share Pit Toilet 307 (4.9) 17 (5.5) 0.90 (0.60-1.34)   11 (3.6) 1.85 (0.57-6.05)  
   None 2491 (40.0) 126 (5.1) 0.66 (0.52-0.83)   60 (2.4) 2.62 (1.27-5.43)  
Chew or Smoke Tobacco        
   Never 2722 (43.7) 111 (4.1) 1.00 (ref)   28 (1.0) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
   Previous 369 (5.9) 33 (8.9) 2.31 (1.54-3.46)   9 (2.4) 2.41 (1.13-5.14) 1.47 (0.65-3.34)
   Current 3137 (50.3) 219 (7.0) 1.77 (1.40-2.23)   97 (3.1) 3.07 (2.01-4.69) 2.07 (1.26-3.41) §
Sexual Risk        
Lifetime Female Sex Partners        
   0 1386 (22.5) 35 (2.5) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 5 (0.4) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
   1 1671 (27.1) 73 (4.4) 1.62 (1.10-2.40) 1.23 (0.72-2.09) 33 (2.0) 4.19 (1.85-9.50) 2.96 (1.00-8.81)
   2-3 1549 (25.1) 92 (5.9) 2.24 (1.54-3.28) 1.52 (0.89-2.61) 36 (2.3) 4.95 (2.19-11.15) 2.93 (0.97-8.83)
   4-7 881 (14.1) 71 (8.8) 3.44 (2.31-5.12) 2.14 (1.22-3.76) § 32 (4.0) 8.60 (3.78-19.59) 4.50 (1.47-13.81) §
   >7 672 (10.9) 87 (11.6) 4.68 (3.18-6.88) 2.44 (1.39-4.29) § 26 (3.5) 7.49 (3.23-17.33) 2.74 (0.86-8.73)
Sex with Men        
   Never 6029 (97.9) 338 (5.6) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 127 (2.1) 1.00 (ref)  
   > 6 months ago 85 (1.4) 9 (10.6) 1.99 (0.99-4.01) 1.27 (0.57-2.82) 2 (2.4) 1.12 (0.27-4.60)  
   Within last 6 months 47 (0.8) 11 (23.4) 5.14 (2.60-10.20) 2.95 (1.27-6.82) § 3 (6.4) 3.17 (0.97-10.34)  
HIV/STI Serostatus        
HIV 1/2 130 (2.1) 66 (51.6) 20.17 (14.03-28.99) 14.16 (9.37-21.40) || 29 (22.3) 16.41 (10.40-25.88) 8.70 (4.99-15.18) ||
HSV-2 363 (5.8) -    33 (9.1) 5.71 (3.80-8.60) 2.35 (1.42-3.90) ||
Syphilis 134 (2.2) 33 (24.6) 5.71 (3.80-8.60) 2.08 (1.25-3.46) § -   
  1. *Variables included in final HSV-2 model: tatoo, circumcision, lifetime female sex partners, sex with men, HIV 1/2 serostatus, syphilis serostatus, age, SLI, education, place of residence.
  2. †Variables included in final syphilis model: chew or smoke tobacco, lifetime female sex partners, HIV 1/2 serostatus, HSV-2 serostatus, occupation, caste.
  3. ‡Data missing: 5 for tatoo, 6 for transfusion, 68 for circumcision, 7 for tobacco, 76 for female sex partners, 74 for sex with men, 1 for SLI, 4 for education and 265 for time away from home
  4. Reflects number who responded to all items in table; the total for sub-categories may not add up to 12,617 due to some missing data.
  5. § p < 0.05 in final model
  6. || p < 0.001 in final model
  7. ¶Based on living conditions and assets, which was adapted from an index used previously by the National Health and Family Life Survey in India.[14]