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Table 2 Annual rates of viral load testing and proportions of participants with gaps in testing by baseline demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Regional differences in rates of HIV-1 viral load monitoring in Canada: Insights and implications for antiretroviral care in high income countries

   annual rate of VL testing Subjects having ≥ 1 gap of >9 months Subjects having ≥ 1 gap of >6 months
Characteristics N median (IQR) p value # (%) p value # (%) p value
Overall 3648 4.3 (3.4-5.5)   943 (26%)   1848 (51%)  
Region        
   BC 1674 4.9 (3.8-6.3) < .0001 347 (21%) < .0001 672 (40%) < .0001
   Ontario 1143 3.9 (3.1-4.8)   357 (31%)   699 (61%)  
   Quebec 831 4.0 (3.2-4.8)   239 (29%)   477 (57%)  
Age (years)        
   ≤ 40 1942 4.1 (3.2-5.3) < .0001 614 (32%) < .0001 1122 (58%) < .0001
   > 40 1706 4.5 (3.6-5.8)   329 (19%)   726 (43%)  
Gender        
   Female 723 3.9 (3.1-5.0) < .0001 255 (35%) < .0001 475 (66%) < .0001
   Male 2925 4.4 (3.5-5.7)   688 (24%)   1373 (47%)  
Caucasian        
   No 855 4.4 (3.4-5.7) 0.33 255 (30%) 0.04 463 (54%) < .001
   Yes 956 4.4 (3.4-5.9)   244 (26%)   439 (46%)  
Risk Factor        
   IDU 632 4.0 (3.0-5.1) < .0001 247 (39%) < .0001 417 (66%) < .0001
   MSM 976 4.3 (3.5-5.4)   186 (19%)   421 (43%)  
   Blood product recipient 32 4.1 (3.5-5.1)   8 (25%)   18 (56%)  
   Endemic 209 4.1 (3.4-4.8)   60 (29%)   128 (61%)  
   Heterosexual contact 245 4.2 (3.4-5.7)   64 (26%)   135 (55%)  
   Not reported/Other 1554 4.5 (3.4-5.8)   378 (24%)   729 (47%)  
AIDS defining illness        
   No 3167 4.2 (3.3-5.5) < .0001 858 (27%) < .0001 1641 (52%) < .001
   Yes 481 4.7 (3.8-5.9)   85 (18%)   207 (43%)  
Type of cART        
   NNRTI-based 1586 4.1 (3.2-5.0) < .0001 425 (27%) < .0001 874 (55%) < .0001
   Boosted PI-based 1433 5.0 (3.7-6.5)   292 (20%)   573 (40%)  
   Single PI-based 384 4.0 (3.1-4.9)   149 (39%)   256 (67%)  
   Other cART 245 3.9 (3.2-4.7)   77 (31%)   145 (59%)  
Year of initiating cART        
   2000 482 3.7 (2.8-4.7) < .0001 219 (45%) < .0001 346 (72%) < .0001
   2001-2004 2036 4.2 (3.3-5.3)   599 (29%)   1132 (56%)  
   >2004 1130 4.9 (3.9-6.4)   125 (11%)   370 (33%)  
CD4 count        
   < 200 cells/mm3 1921 4.4 (3.4-5.7) < .0001 474 (25%) < .001 941 (49%) < .0001
   200 - 350 cells/mm3 1175 4.3 (3.4-5.5)   286 (24%)   560 (48%)  
   > 350 cells/mm3 544 4.1 (3.0-5.2)   181 (33%)   341 (63%)  
VL (copies/mL)        
   ≥ 50 3509 4.3 (3.4-5.6) < .001 905 (26%) 0.68 1770 (50%) 0.19
   < 50 139 3.9 (2.9-4.8)   38 (27%)   78 (56%)  
Hepatitis C Co-infection        
   No 1712 4.4 (3.6-5.6) < .0001 346 (20%) < .0001 756 (44%) < .0001
   Yes 736 4.1 (3.0-5.3)   281 (38%)   473 (64%)  
  1. MSM = men who have sex with men, IDU = injection drug use, cART = combination antiretroviral therapy, NNRTI = non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, PI = protease inhibitor.
  2. † Risk factors were grouped hierarchically for comparison purposes: IDU, MSM, blood product recipient, origin/residence in an HIV-endemic area, heterosexual transmission