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Table 1 Risk factors for human leptospirosis based on case control studies

From: Determinants of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: Study Protocol

Authors Country Study Sample size Risk factors Odds ratio(CI)
Douglin et al (1997) St. Andrew Barbados Laboratory based retrospective Cases 22 Gardening 4.57(1.09-20.36)
    Con. 38 presence of dogs around the home 7.82(1.79-46.55)
     wearing boots in the garden or yard 8.59(1.93-42.55)
     walking through ponds or stagnant water 25.62(2.89-1151.84)
Bovet et al (1999) Seychellus Population based prospective Cases 75 Gardening 9.86 (2.6-36.1)
    Con. 65 Indoor occupation 0.28 (0.09-0.85)
     Home built with corrugated iron 4.6 (1.09-19.4)
     Wet soil around home 5.65 (1.39-23)
     Refuse not collected by public service 5.23 (1.37-20)
     Cats at home 7.55 (2.04-27.9)
     Skin wounds 6.66 (2.04-27.9)
     Drinking locally made brew 5.41 (1.38-21.2)
Leal-Castellanos et al (2003) Chiapas, Mexico Rural community prevalence study 1169 subjects skin cut or abrasion 4.2 (3.1-5.7)
     contact with animal excreta with no 1.9 (1.3-2.7)
     protection and with a skin cut or abrasion 2.3 (1.1-4.6)
Phraisuwan et al (2002) Thailand High risk exposure - after pond cleaning Cases 43 wearing long pants or skirts 0.217
    Con. 61 presence of more than two wounds on the body 3.97
Ashford et al (2000) Nicaragua High risk exposure Following an Outbreak Case 85 Rural household 2.61 (1.06-6.45)
    Con. 481 Gathering wood 2.08 (1.14-3.79)
     Shelling/husking corn 1.8 (0.72-4.51)
     Indoor water source 0.42 (0.22-0.80)
Everard et al Barbados Laboratory based retrospective   Sugar-cane workers 5
(1990)     those whose families minded livestock 2.5
     rodents in their garden/yard 1.8
Johnson et al (2004) Peru Endemic area seroprevalence Case 235
Con. 1116
Not wearing shoes in the field 2.17 (1.39-3.37)
Tangkanakul et al (2000) North- eastern, Thailand Hospital based Prospective Case 56 travel on potholed roads 5.0 ( 1.2-20.2)
    Con. 145 traveling by car 0.2 ( 0.06-0.9)
Sarkar et al (2002) Salvador, Brazil During an epidemic retrospective population based Case 101 Open sewer in proximity 5.07 (2.04-12.64)
    Con. 125 Open sewer floods during rainy season 4.21 (1.51-12.83)
     Street floods during rainy season 2.54 (1.08-6.17)
     > 6 h/day outdoors 2.42 (1.16-5.00)
     Contact with sewer water 3.63 (1.69-7.25)
     Contact with floodwater 3.03 (1.44-6.39)
     Contact with mud 3.08 (1.32-5.87)
     Sighting groups of five or more rats 5.00 (2.22-21.25)
     Peri-domiciliar sighting of rats Sighting 3.40 (1.74-11.78)
     Sighting rats at work site 2.40 (1.11-5.17)
     Dog as domestic animal 1.19 (0.57-2.47)
     Works > 40 h/week 1.72 (0.89-3.66)
     Works outdoors exclusively 2.46 (1.04-5.11)
     Work-related contact with trash 2.36 (1.23-5.56)
Nardone et al (1998) Metropolitan France Retrospective, hospital-based Case 90 Skin lesion 7.0 (2.7-17.6)
    Con. 169 Countryside residence 2.9 (1.1-7.6)
     Canoeing 15.5 (1.6-147.0)
     Any animal contact 4.8 (1.4-16.2)