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Table 2 Adults and children, univariate associations between explanatory variables and pneumococcal carriage (aggregate data for 2002 and 2004)

From: Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of respiratory bacterial pathogens in children and adults: cross-sectional surveys in a population with high rates of pneumococcal disease

Variable   Adults   Children
   Positive carriage (%) Odds ratio p-value   Positive carriage (%) Odds ratio p-value
Sex Female 72/324 (22) 1    n/a n/a  
  Male 68/214 (32) 1.63 (1.04-2.56) 0.03     
Chest infection in the previous month No 67/329 (20) 1    n/a n/a  
  Yes 70/200 (35) 2.11 (1.40-3.18) < 0.01     
Runny nose in the previous week No 60/306 (20) 1    76/142 (54) 1  
  Yes 71/214 (33) 2.04 (1.37-3.02) < 0.01   147/187 (79) 3.19 (1.97-5.17) < 0.01
Number household occupants 0 92/306 (30) 1    59/103 (57) 1  
  1-2 37/187 (20) 0.57 (0.37-0.89) 0.01   136/191 (71) 1.84 (1.10-3.08) 0.02
< 5 years ≥3 10/39 (26) 0.80 (0.36-1.77) 0.58   38/49 (78) 2.58 (1.14-5.83) 0.02
Number bedroom occupants 0 n/a n/a    142/224 (63) 1  
  1      27/40 (68) 1.35 (0.63-2.90) 0.44
< 5 years ≥2      67/86 (78) 2.12 (1.18-3.81) 0.01
Sits at an outside fire       n/a n/a  
   Never/monthly   35/172 (20) 1      
   Most days   96/347 (28) 1.50 (0.99-2.26) 0.05     
   Every day   7/11 (64) 6.9 (1.9-24.5) < 0.01     
Daytime location   n/a n/a   School 167/263 (64) 1  
      Creche 14/14 (100) n/a  
      Home 22/31 (71) 1.41 (0.64-3.07) 0.39
      With carer 32/36 (89) 4.60 (1.60-13.2) < 0.01
Closest personal contact         
   Adult   118/403 (29) 1   School 170/268 (63) 1  
   School child   4/25 (16) 0.46 (0.15-1.41) 0.18 Creche 20/22 (91) 5.76 (1.29-25.8) 0.02
   Creche child   3/14 (21) 0.66 (0.17-2.50) 0.54 Mother 43/50 (86) 3.54 (1.55-8.1) < 0.01
   Young child   14/88 (16) 0.46 (0.23-0.90) 0.02     
H. influenzae detected No 68/415 (16) 1    57/149 (38) 1  
  Yes 72/123 (59) 7.20 (4.59-11.3) < 0.01   178/201 (89) 12.49 (6.96-22.4) < 0.01
M. catarrhalis detected No 94/446 (21) 1    35/92 (38) 1  
  Yes 46/92 (52) 3.74 (2.36-5.95) < 0.01   200/258 (78) 5.62 (3.21-9.81) < 0.01
  1. Note: Odds ratios and confidence intervals calculated by logistic regression and adjusted for repeated measures. n/a, not applicable. Adult risk factors excluded from aggregation of 2002 and 2004 data: antibiotic prescription in the previous month, number of bedroom occupants, diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease or chronic lung disease (data not shown), current smoker, fire outside the house, 23PPV in the previous 2 years, number of bedroom occupants < 5 years of age, bedroom occupant includes a child, employed, record of proteinuria or diabetes, influenza vaccination in the previous 2 years, record of excessive alcohol use. Risk factors included in aggregate data: sex, chest infection in the previous month, runny nose in the previous week, number of household occupants < 5 years of age, closest personal contact (young child versus adult), and concurrent carriage of H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis. Frequency sitting at an outside fire was included in aggregate data as p = 0.003 for one category in 2002 but no observations in that category in 2004. Among children, risk factors excluded from aggregation: antibiotic prescription in the previous month, fire outside the house, number of household occupants, number of bedroom occupants, and bedroom occupant includes an adult. Risk factors included in aggregate data: runny nose in the previous week, number of household occupants < 5 years of age, number of bedroom occupants < 5 years of age, daytime location, closest personal contact (mother versus school children), and concurrent carriage of H. influenzae or M. catarrhalis.