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Table 3 Base-case results using a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV9)

From: Economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in The Gambia

Model outcomes No vaccination Vaccination (PCV9) Reduction
Pneumonia (primary endpoint) 5,039 3,635 27.9%
Pneumonia (non-primary endpoint) 25,123 25,758 -2.5%
Pneumonia (all endpoints) 30,161 29,393 2.5%
Meningitis 46 40 13.2%
Sepsis 21 18 13.2%
Hospitalization (primary endpoint pneumonia) 2,670 1,926 27.9%
Outpatient visit (primary endpoint pneumonia) 2,368 1,708 27.9%
Hospitalization (all endpoints of pneumonia) 7,519 6,898 8.3%
Hospitalization (all diseases) 7,586 6,956 8.3%
Pneumonia (primary endpoint) deaths 151 109 27.9%
Pneumonia (non-primary endpoint) deaths 276 283 -2.5%
Pneumonia (all endpoints) deaths 428 392 8.2%
Meningitis deaths 16 14 14.7%
Sepsis deaths 7 6 13.1%
DALYs (K = 0)a 182,630 181,630 0.5%
Costsa (2005 US$) 233,100 902,040 --
ICER (2005 US$/DALY averted) -- 670 --
ICER expressed as % per capita GDPb   190%  
  1. DALY: disability-adjusted life year, ICER: incremental cost-effectiveness ratio.
  2. a discounted at 3%.
  3. b $360 (in 2005 US$) in The Gambia for 2008.