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Table 2 General demographics, reported hand washing behaviors, and perceived effectiveness, severity, and susceptibility of the participants

From: Perceptions and behaviors related to hand hygiene for the prevention of H1N1 influenza transmission among Korean university students during the peak pandemic period

  Total Males Females P-value*
  N (%) N (%) N (%)  
Total 942 (100.0) 738 (78.3) 204 (21.7) -
Age group        
   18-19 244 (26.3) 178 (24.5) 66 (32.8) <0.001
   20-21 214 (23.1) 157 (21.6) 57 (28.4)  
   22-23 236 (25.4) 182 (25.0) 54 (26.9)  
   24+ 234 (25.2) 210 (28.9) 24 (11.9)  
Type of residence        
   University residence halls 530 (56.4) 435 (59.2) 95 (46.6) 0.001
   Others 409 (43.6) 300 (40.8) 109 (53.4)  
Acquaintances with recent "flu-like" symptoms        
   No 380 (40.3) 324 (43.9) 56 (27.5) <0.001
   Yes 562 (59.7) 414 (56.1) 148 (72.5)  
Recent "flu-like" symptoms        
   No 685 (72.7) 568 (77.0) 117 (57.4) <0.001
   Yes 257 (27.3) 170 (23.0) 87 (42.6)  
Daily hand washing frequency        
   #1 68 (7.2) 66 (8.9) 2 (1.0) <0.001
   2-4 503 (53.4) 418 (56.6) 85 (41.7)  
   5-7 240 (25.5) 165 (22.4) 75 (36.8)  
   8-9 70 (7.4) 49 (6.6) 21 (10.3)  
   #10 61 (6.5) 40 (5.4) 21 (10.3)  
Information encountered        
   No 76 (8.1) 65 (8.8) 11 (5.4) 0.113
   Yes 866 (91.9) 673 (91.2) 193 (94.6)  
Perceived effectiveness        
   Negligible 40 (4.3) 32 (4.3) 8 (3.9) 0.006
   More or less 300 (31.9) 216 (29.3) 84 (41.2)  
   Substantial 600 (63.8) 488 (66.3) 112 (54.9)  
Perceived severity        
   Mild symptoms like common cold 526 (56.1) 439 (59.7) 87 (42.9) <0.001
   Substantial limitation in daily life 297 (31.7) 214 (29.1) 83 (40.9)  
   Have severe consequences 29 (3.1) 25 (3.4) 4 (2.0)  
   May die from it 86 (9.2) 57 (7.8) 29 (14.3)  
Perceived susceptibility        
   Very low 192 (25.9) 169 (28.7) 23 (14.9) 0.002
   Somewhat low 249 (33.6) 200 (34.0) 49 (31.8)  
   Nor low, nor high 244 (32.9) 178 (30.3) 66 (42.9)  
   Somewhat high 44 (5.9) 31 (5.3) 13 (8.4)  
   Very high 13 (1.8) 10 (1.7) 3 (1.9)  
  1. * chi-square test