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Table 5 Summary of Widal performances in earlier studies

From: Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies

Authors Date Study Country Sample Size Age classes included Prevalence of S. typhi in participants Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV Cut Off Titer Control Group(s) Gold Standard
Choo et al. 1993 Malaysia 2382 Children 6.1% 89% 89% < 50% 99.2% O or H ≥1:40 Non-typhoid febrile children admitted to hospital Blood Culture
Parry et al. 1999 Vietnam 2000 Children & Adults 30.8% O: 49%
H: 67%;
O or H ≥1:100:88%
O: 97%
H: 96%;
O or H ≥1:100:87%
O: 88%
H: 88%;
O or H ≥1:100:74%
O: 82%
H: 87%;
O or H ≥1:100:94%
O:≥1:200
H: ≥1:100;
O or H ≥1:100
Lab confirmed malaria, dengue or bacteremia Blood Culture
Wilke et al. 2002 Turkey 410 ≥18 y 13.2% 52%
Post 7-10 d: 90%
88%
Post 7-10 d: 90%
76%
Post 7-10 d: 88%
71%
Post 7-10 d: 93%
O: ≥1:200
H: ≥1:200
Healthy controls, nontyphoidal febrile patients, blood culture negative febrile cases Blood Culture, Stool Culture
Olsen et al. 2004 Vietnam 80 ≥3y 73.8% 64% (field)
61% (lab)
76% (field)
100% (lab)
88% (field)
100% (lab)
43% (field)
48% (lab)
O or H ≥1:100 Lab confirmed bacteremia, AFB, dengue, malaria, pos. stool culture, pos. urine culture Blood Culture
Ley et al. This study Tanzania 1680 2 m. - 14y 1% 75% 98% 26% 100% H: ≥1:80 Non-typhoid febrile children admitted to hospital Blood Culture