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Table 5 Factors associated with negative psychological responses.

From: Avoidance behaviors and negative psychological responses in the general population in the initial stage of the H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong

  Feeling much worried either oneself or one's family members would contract H1N1 Expressed emotional distress (being much in panic or felt very much depressed or being highly emotionally disturbed)
  Row % ORU ORm(95% CI) Row % ORU ORm(95% CI)
Background characteristics       
Gender       
   Male 13.4 1.00 - 3.7 1.00 1
   Female 17.7 1.39   7.8 2.21** 2.17 (1.18 - 4.00)*
Education level       
   Form 3 or below - - - 9.2 1.00 NS
   Form 4 - matriculation     5.9 0.61  
   College or above     4.6 0.47*  
Full-time employed       
   No - - - 7.8 1.00 NS
   Yes     4.7 0.58*  
Unconfirmed beliefs and knowledge about modes of transmission of H1N1       
Unconfirmed beliefs about modes of transmission       
   None 12.3 1.00 NS - - -
   At least 1 item 18.0 1.56*     
Evaluation of governmental preparedness and performance in dealing with H1N1       
Inadequacy of government preparation (health system)       
   None - - - 3.6 1.00 1
   At least 1 of 3 items     8.1 2.34** 2.35 (1.30 - 4.26)**
Perceived governmental ability in controlling the epidemic §       
   None 26.0 1.00 1 - - -
   At least 1 of 2 items 14.9 0.50* 0.51 (0.29 - 0.90)*    
Risk perception       
Perceived severity of H1N1       
High fatality       
   Disagree/unsure 14.4 1.00 NS 5.1 1.00 1
   Agree 20.9 1.57*   9.3 1.93* 1.94 (1.08 - 3.49)*
Severe irreversible bodily damages       
   Disagree/unsure 13.8 1.00 1 5.4 1.00 -
   Agree 24.3 2.00*** 1.95 (1.30 - 2.90)** 8.5 1.62  
Perceived chance of contracting H1N1 in the coming year       
The respondent       
   Low/very low/unsure 13.8 1.00 1 5.5 1.00 NS
   High or very high 37.2 3.70*** 3.31 (2.02 - 5.42)*** 11.6 2.26*  
Family members       
   Low/very low/unsure 13.8 1.00 NS 5.1 1.00 1
   High or very high 36.8 3.62***   16.1 3.59*** 3.68 (1.86 - 7.29)***
The general public       
   Low/very low/unsure 13.7 1.00 NS 5.1 1.00 NS
   High or very high 30.6 2.79***   12.1 2.58**  
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ORU: univariate odds ratio obtained from logistic regression models; ORm: odds ratios obtained from stepwise multivariate logistics regression analysis, using univariately significant variables as candidate variables; NS: not statistically significant in multivariate analysis.
  2. Unconfirmed beliefs about modes of transmission were assessed by 4 items: the disease could be airborne across a long distance (e.g. from one building to another one); transmitted via water sources (e.g. reservoirs); transmitted via insect bites; transmitted via well-cooked pork.
  3. Inadequacy of government preparation (health system) was assessed by 3 items: local health system do not have enough medication for treating H1N1; local health system do not have enough vaccine for H1N1; Hospitals in Hong Kong do not have enough personal protection equipments for H1N1.
  4. § Perceived governmental ability of controlling the epidemic was assessed by 2 items: Hong Kong will be able to control the H1N1 epidemic; Hong Kong government will be able to control a large-scale H1N1 outbreak.
  5. Variables that were not significantly associated with any of the dependent variables in the univariate analysis were not tabulated. These variables include wave of survey, age, marital status, current health care practitioner, correct knowledge about modes of transmission, perceived chance of having an H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong as compared to other counties in the future year.