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Table 4 Factors associated with avoidance behaviors.

From: Avoidance behaviors and negative psychological responses in the general population in the initial stage of the H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong

  Avoided visiting crowded places Avoided going out Avoided visiting hospitals
  Row % ORU ORm(95% CI) Row % ORU ORm(95% CI) Row % ORU ORm(95% CI)
Wave of survey          
   Wave 1 57.5 1.00 NS 47.8 1.00 NS 67.2 1.00 NS
   Wave 2 56.5 0.96   43.5 0.84   57.7 0.67*  
   Wave 3 48.0 0.68*   35.9 0.61**   59.7 0.72*  
Background characteristics          
Gender          
   Male 48.5 1.00 1 37.4 1.00 1 59.2 1.00 NS
   Female 59.8 1.58*** 1.51 (1.15 - 1.98)** 49.0 1.61*** 1.42 (1.07 - 1.89)* 66.7 1.38*  
Age          
   <30 38.0 1.00 1 28.8 1.00 1 - - -
   30 - 39 53.7 1.89** 1.81 (1.22 - 2.69)** 44.8 2.00*** 2.17 (1.41 - 3.33)*** - -  
   40 - 49 55.9 2.07*** 2.14 (1.48 - 3.10)*** 42.8 1.85** 2.09 (1.41 - 3.11)*** - -  
   50 - 60 70.0 3.81*** 3.90 (2.67 - 5.70)*** 58.3 3.46*** 3.66 (2.49 - 5.38)*** - -  
Education level          
   Form 3 or below 69.6 1.00 NS 57.6 1.00 NS - - -
   Form 4 - matriculation 54.5 0.53**   44.8 0.60**   - -  
   College or above 47.7 0.40***   35.7 0.41***   - -  
Marital status          
   Single 40.8 1.00 NS 31.3 1.00 NS 56.8 1.00 1
   Married/cohabited 62.2 2.39***   50.5 2.24***   67.2 1.56** 1.47 (1.11 - 1.95)**
   Divorced/widowed 46.7 1.27   33.3 1.10   53.3 0.87 0.79 (0.28 - 2.29)
Full-time employed          
   No - - - 50.2 1.00 1 - - -
   Yes - -   38.8 0.63*** 0.72 (0.53 - 0.97)* - -  
Unconfirmed beliefs and knowledge about modes of transmission of H1N1          
Unconfirmed beliefs about modes of transmission          
   None 46.8 1.00 1 34.5 1.00 1 55.8 1.00 1
   At least one item 60.0 1.70*** 1.67 (1.27 - 2.21)*** 49.9 1.89*** 1.88 (1.41 - 2.51)*** 68.2 1.70*** 1.56 (1.18 - 2.05)**
Correct knowledge about modes of transmission          
   Not all items being correct 48.2 1.00 1 37.9 1.00 1 59.2 1.00 NS
   All items being correct 59.2 1.56** 1.42 (1.08 - 1.87)* 47.9 1.51** 1.43 (1.08 - 1.88)* 66.3 1.35*  
Evaluation of governmental preparedness and performance in dealing with H1N1          
Inadequacy of government preparation (health system) §          
   None - - - 40.5 1.00 NS - - -
   At least one of the three items - -   47.3 1.32*   - -  
Perceived governmental ability of controlling the epidemic          
   None - - - 29.9 1.00 NS - - -
   At least one of the two items - -   45.2 1.94*   - -  
Governmental performance in dealing with H1N1 (average score of 6 items) #          
   ≤5 49.5 1.00 NS 37.1 1.00 NS 58.1 1.00 NS
   >5 - 8 53.0 1.15   42.8 1.27   62.3 1.19  
   >8 64.1 1.82*   51.0 1.76*   69.5 1.65*  
   Risk perception          
   Perceived severity of H1N1          
   High fatality          
   Disagree/unsure 52.4 1.00 NS 41.8 1.00 NS 61.6 1.00 NS
   Agree 64.4 1.64**   52.4 1.53**   70.4 1.48*  
   Severe irreversible bodily damages          
   Disagree/unsure 52.8 1.00 NS 40.9 1.00 1 60.6 1.00 1
   Agree 63.8 1.58**   57.1 1.93*** 1.54 (1.09 - 2.18)* 75.7 2.02*** 1.81 (1.24 - 2.63)**
   Perceived chance of having a large scale H1N1 outbreak in Hong Kong in the future year, compared to other countries          
   Hong Kong = other countries - - - 40.4 1 NS - - -
   Hong Kong > other countries - -   44.3 1.18   - -  
   Hong Kong < other countries - -   47.2 1.32*   - -  
   Negative psychological responses          
   Worry much that oneself or family member would contract the disease          
   No 52.1 1.00 1 41.5 1.00 NS 61.0 1.00 1
   Yes 69.6 2.10*** 1.62 (1.07 - 2.47)* 57.5 1.89***   76.6 2.10*** 1.74 (1.16 - 2.61)**
   Emotional distress (Feeling much in panic or much depressed or much emotionally disturbed)          
   No 53.0 1.00 1 42.4 1.00 1 62.5 1.00 NS
   Yes 81.7 3.94*** 3.04 (1.42 - 6.48)** 66.1 2.65** 2.61 (1.42 - 4.79)** 76.7 1.97*  
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ORU: univariate odds ratio obtained using logistic regression; ORm: odds ratio obtained from stepwise multivariate logistics regression analysis using univariately significant variables as candidate variables; NS: not statistically significant in multivariate analysis.
  2. Unconfirmed beliefs about modes of transmission was assessed by 4 items: the disease could be airborne across a long distance (e.g. from one building to another one); transmitted via water sources (e.g. reservoirs); transmitted via insect bites; transmitted via well-cooked pork.
  3. Correct knowledge about modes of transmission was assessed by 3 items: the disease could be transmitted via droplets (e.g. sneeze); could be transmitted via touching body of infected person; could be transmitted via touching contaminated objects.
  4. § Inadequacy of government preparation (health system) was assessed by 3 items: local health system do not have enough medication for treating H1N1; local health system do not have enough vaccine for preventing H1N1; hospitals in Hong Kong do not have enough personal protection equipments for preventing H1N1.
  5. Perceived governmental ability of controlling the epidemic was assessed by 2 items: Hong Kong will be able to control the H1N1 epidemic; Hong Kong government is able to control a large-scale H1N1 outbreak.
  6. # Governmental performance was assessed by 6 items: Timeliness of measures; effectiveness of implemented measures; clear explanations made to citizens; adequacy of implemented measures; coordination across governmental departments; overall performance of the government. (Score range = 0 to 10, with 5 as the passing mark). An average score was calculated for the 6 item scores.
  7. Variables that were not significantly associated with any of the dependent variables in the univariate analysis were not tabulated. These variables include being current health care practitioner, perceived availability of drugs, perceived high chances of contracting the disease for himself/herself, his/her family members and the general public.