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Table 2 Risk factors associated with primary EBV infection.

From: Primary gamma-herpesviral infection in Zambian children

   Unadjusted Analysis Adjusted Analysisb
  Positive/Total No.a p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI)
Socio-Demographic Characteristics     
Gender      
   - Male 199/347 0.39 0.87 (0.64 - 1.19)   
   - Female 200/330   Reference   
Ethnic Group      
   - Nyanja 182/308 0.88 1.03 (0.72 - 1.47)   
   - All others 99/167 0.87 1.04 (0.68 - 1.57)   
   - Bemba 118/202   Reference   
Mothers Education      
   - 0-7 years 222/348 0.01 1.51 (1.11 - 2.06) 0.006 1.56 (1.14 - 2.13)
   - 8 or more years 177/329   Reference   Reference
Mothers Employment      
   - Unemployed 331/566 0.56 1.13 (0.74 - 1.72)   
   - Employed 61/109   Reference   
Monthly Income      
   - less than 100,000 ZMK 189/309 0.28 1.18 (0.87 - 1.61)   
   - more than 100,000 ZMK 210/368   Reference   
Household members      
   - 6 or more 148/247 0.74 1.06 (0.77 - 1.45)   
   - 2 to 5 245/418   Reference   
HIV infection (mother)      
   - Positive 108/149 <0.001 2.15 (1.44 - 3.2) 0.005 1.86 (1.20 - 2.87)
   - Negative 291/528   Reference   Reference
Child Characteristics c     
Birth weight of child      
   - less than 3.2 Kg 251/430 0.72 0.95 (0.69 - 1.29)   
   - more than 3.2 Kg 147/244   Reference   
Diarrhea      
   - Ever 140/238 0.98 0.99 (0.72 - 1.37)   
   - Never 257/436   Reference   
Fever      
   - Ever 168/270 0.15 1.26 (0.92 - 1.72)   
   - Never 229/404   Reference   
Cough      
   - Ever 214/371 0.48 0.89 (0.66 - 1.22)   
   - Never 183/303   Reference   
Rashes      
   - Ever 96/143 0.02 1.56 (1.06 - 2.3) 0.08 1.43 (0.96 - 2.13)
   - Never 301/531   Reference   Reference
Malaria      
   - Ever 48/78 0.61 1.13 (0.7 - 1.84)   
   - Never 349/596   Reference   
HIV infection (child)      
   - Positive 63/91 0.03 1.67 (1.04 - 2.69) 0.14 1.44 (0.88 - 2.36)
   - Negative 336/586   Reference   Reference
EBV infection      
   - Positive 33/41 0.01 3.04 (1.38 - 6.69) 0.27 1.64 (0.67 - 3.90)
   - Negative 41/636   Reference   
Antibiotics      
   - Ever 273/475 0.24 0.82 (0.58 - 1.15)   
   - Never 124/199 Reference    
Traditional therapy      
   - Yes 40/61 0.27 1.37 (0.79 - 2.37)   
   - No 357/613   Reference   
Multivitamin use      
   - Ever 20/32 0.67 1.17 (0.56 - 2.44)   
   - Never 377/642   Reference   
  1. OR- Odds Ratio, CI- Confidence Interval, ZMK- Zambian Kwacha.
  2. aTotal number may not add up to 677 in all categories due to missing values.
  3. bAdjusted analysis includes all variables with p-value ≤ 0.05 in the unadjusted analysis.
  4. cData on lymphadenopathy, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, oral thrush and hematinics use in the child were also analyzed but not shown in this table.
  5. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios to predict association between primary EBV infection in a cohort of 677 children and socio-demographic characteristics and medical conditions in Lusaka, Zambia, 1998-2004.