A prospective descriptive study of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV uninfected patients in Vietnam - high prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii in the absence of underlying disease
© Chau et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 2 December 2009
Accepted: 9 July 2010
Published: 9 July 2010
Most cases of cryptococcal meningitis occur in patients with HIV infection: the course and outcome of disease in the apparently immunocompetent is much more poorly understood. We describe a cohort of HIV uninfected Vietnamese patients with cryptococcal meningitis in whom underlying disease is uncommon, and relate presenting features of patients and the characteristics of the infecting species to outcome.
A prospective descriptive study of HIV negative patients with cryptococcal meningitis based at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City. All patients had comprehensive clinical assessment at baseline, were cared for by a dedicated study team, and were followed up for 2 years. Clinical presentation was compared by infecting isolate and outcome.
57 patients were studied. Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii molecular type VN1 caused 70% of infections; C. gattii accounted for the rest. Most patients did not have underlying disease (81%), and the rate of underlying disease did not differ by infecting species. 11 patients died while in-patients (19.3%). Independent predictors of death were age ≥ 60 years and a history of convulsions (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals 8.7 (1 - 76), and 16.1 (1.6 - 161) respectively). Residual visual impairment was common, affecting 25 of 46 survivors (54.3%). Infecting species did not influence clinical phenotype or outcome. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of flucytosine and amphotericin B were significantly higher for C. neoformans var grubii compared with C. gattii (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01 respectively).
In HIV uninfected individuals in Vietnam, cryptococcal meningitis occurs predominantly in people with no clear predisposing factor and is most commonly due to C. neoformans var grubii. The rates of mortality and visual loss are high and independent of infecting species. There are detectable differences in susceptibility to commonly used antifungal drugs between species, but the clinical significance of this is not clear.
Cryptococcus neoformans is the most important cause of invasive fungal disease worldwide. In the absence of HIV, neurological disease occurs most commonly in patients with some other cause of immunosuppression, such as malignancy or organ transplantation. Disease in these patients, and in HIV patients, is most usually due to infection with either Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii (C. grubii), or Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans (C. neoformans) . In the tropics and subtropics, Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii )is a recognized cause of meningoencephalitis in the immunocompetent, and it is an emerging cause of disease in humans and animals in British Columbia [2–7].
Cryptococcal meningitis is rare in immunocompetent patients - treatment guidelines for these patients are based largely upon evidence from trials in HIV patients, although data suggest there are significant differences in clinical presentation and prognosis between the two groups[8–20]. We carried out a prospective descriptive study to determine the clinical presentation and outcome in HIV negative patients presenting to our hospital with cryptococcal meningitis.
Prospective observational descriptive study.
Setting and participants
The study was conducted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, the tertiary referral centre for infectious diseases in tropical southern Vietnam. The hospital serves a population of 40 million people and the well defined patterns of inter-hospital referral in Vietnam mean all patients in the catchment area with cryptococcal meningitis are likely be referred for treatment. All patients received initial treatment and follow-up on the dedicated central nervous systems (CNS) infection ward. Ethical approval for the study was from the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Viet Nam and the Oxford University Tropical Ethics Committee, UK.
The study was open to adult patients (age≥15 years) in whom HIV infection was excluded through 2 negative HIV antibody tests. Cryptococcal meningitis was defined as follows:
Either: Positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) India ink examination or positive CSF cryptococcal antigen test or positive CSF cryptococcal culture.
Or: a syndrome consistent with meningoencephalitis (1 or more of headache, neck stiffness, confusion, coma, convulsions, focal neurology) and culture or antigen positive blood.
Evidence of other central nervous system infection was an exclusion criterion.
Patients were recruited between November 1998 and July 2007. Written informed consent was obtained prior to study entry.
All patients were assessed daily by the dedicated study team. CSF was examined using standard methods including Gram's, Ziehl-Neelsen and India ink stains, and culture on blood, Sabouraud's and Lowenstein-Jensen media. HIV infection was excluded using Rapid Test and 2 HIV antibody tests (Determine HIV1/2, Abbott, Maidenhead, UK).
C. neoformans was identified by the demonstration of budding encapsulated yeasts on India ink stain of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF pellets were cultured at 35°C on chocolate and blood agar, brain-heart infusion broth, and at 30°C and 35°C on Sabouraud's agar (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK). Identification was confirmed through demonstration of the growth of characteristic colonies on bird seed agar and API 32C sugar assimilation tests (BioMerieux SA, Marcy l'Etoile, France). Isolates were stored at -30°C on Microbank plastic beads (Pro-Lab Diagnostics, Neston, Cheshire, UK) and later revived for speciation. C. gattii was identified by biotyping with Canavanine Glycine Bromothymol Blue agar, and isolates were further divided into eight molecular groups using Polymerase Chain Reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the URA5 gene. Controls were provided by Dr Wieland Meyer, Westmead Millennium Institute for Medical Research, Sydney, Australia.
Semi-quantitative Cryptococcus antigen testing was performed using the Murex Cryptococcus Test (Remel, Lenexa, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Sensitivity testing was performed using YeastOne Sensititre plates (Trek Diagnostic Systems, East Grinstead, UK) according to the manufacturer's instructions on the yeast isolated at presentation, prior to treatment. All plates were examined at 48 and 72 hours after incubation at 30°C.
Patients were treated according to Vietnamese national guidelines with intravenous amphotericin B 0.7 to 1mg/kg/day (Cipla, Mumbai, India) with oral flucytosine 100mg/kg/day (Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Versailles, France) at the physician's discretion, followed by fluconazole 400mg/day (Ranbaxy, Gurgaon, India). Treatment duration was at the discretion of the attending physician, guided by the clinical response of the patient. Raised intracranial pressure was managed by repeated lumbar puncture.
Patients were followed for 2 years after hospital discharge.
All data were entered into an electronic spreadsheet (Excel, Microsoft, Seattle, USA). Statistical analysis was performed using STATA version 9 (Statacorp, Texas, USA). For comparison of proportions of categorical or dichotomized parameters the chi-squared or Fisher's exact test were used. For continuous parameters the Mann-Whitney U-test was used. Forward step-wise logistic regression was performed to determine significant variables independently associated with outcome.
Fifty-seven patients were recruited. Forty patients were transferred from other hospitals, and the median duration in these hospitals before transfer was 5 days (interquartile range 1 - 12 days). All had clinical syndromes consistent with cryptococcal meningitis and all underwent lumbar puncture. All had positive CSF India ink examination and positive CSF culture. History and examination findings on presentation are shown in Additional file 1: table S1. The duration of symptoms was unclear in one patient, due to a history of chronic headache (3 years) prior to diagnosis. The most frequent presenting symptoms were headache, fever and neck stiffness. Oculomotor nerve palsies and visual disturbance (decreased acuity or diplopia) were common on admission, affecting 18 (31.6%) and 27 (47%) patients respectively. Papilloedema was common, present in 22 of 55 patients (40%, data missing in 2 patients). Eleven patients (19%) had potentially immunosuppressive pre-existing health problems. Seven had taken more than three months of corticosteroid (nephrotic syndrome (2), Evan's syndrome (2), chronic arthritis (2) and systemic lupus erythematosus (1)). Two patients had cirrhosis, one had cirrhosis and renal impairment and one had diabetes.
Clinical investigations results are shown in Additional file 1: table S1. The baseline CSF opening pressure was frequently raised, greater than 30cmCSF in 33 of 54 patients (61%). Generally, CSF showed a predominance of lymphocytes with low blood glucose to CSF ratio. The CSF lactate was usually raised. CD4 counts were measured on a single occasion in 20 patients. 9 patients had CD4 counts of less than 400 cells/uL, of whom 3 were receiving treatment with corticosteroids, 2 had renal impairment and one had lupus.
56 of 57 patients had chest X-rays on admission. 12 were abnormal - six showed infiltrative shadowing, five were consistent with old resolved pulmonary TB, and one showed bilateral pleural effusions. 39 scans were performed on 36 patients (26 CT brain scans (Toshiba XVIsion, Toshiba, Japan), 13 Magnetic Resonance (General Electric, UK, 1.5T), (MR) brain scans. Abnormalities included ventricular dilatation, infarction, focal abnormalities consistent with cryptococcomas and meningeal enhancement.
Features of 35 cryptococcal meningitis cases according to infecting species.
C. neoformansvar grubii
C. neoformansvar gattii
(n = 25)
(n = 10)
(Range or %)
(range or %)
Median Age (range)
31 (15 - 74)
41 (18 - 53)
1.48 (0.26 - 8.4)
0.29 (0.01 - 2.9)
2.2 (0.2 - 117)
0.85 (0.04 - 55.8)
1.75 (0.31 - 10.1)
0.62 (0.10 - 3.47)
1.0 (0.95 - 10.9)
0.59 (0.01 - 7.2)
GCS < 11/15
0.29 (0.01 - 2.9)
0.56 (0.05 - 7.8)
Focal Neurological Signs
2.5 (0.4 - 15.0)
3.63 (0.6 - 24.3)
Abnormal Chest X-ray
0.54 (0.05 - 3.7)
Abnormal Brain Imaginga
37.8 (25.3 - 51.4)
38.8 (31.1 - 46)
Blood White Cell Count (×10^9/ml)
11.5(3.3 - 26.6)
13.6 (7.1 - 26.1)
Platelet count (×10^9/L)
256 (56.9 - 356)
305 (140 - 487)
CSF opening pressure (cmCSF)b
34.2 (2 - > 40)
30.5 (15 - > 40)
CSF White Cell Count/ml
287 (2 - 1080)
279 (12 - 480)
CSF Lymphocyte %c
53 (12 - 97)
56 (19 - 93)
CSF Protein (g/L)
1.28 (0.35 - 2.63)
1.25 (0.4 - 1.94)
Log2 CSF Cryptococcal antigen titre5
7.4 (3 - 15)
8.6 (2 - 14)
6.2 (1.6 - 22.5)
4.2 (2 - 8.4)
Antifungal MICs (mg/L)
0.71 (0.62 - 0.83)
0.45 (0.34 - 0.60)
8.23 (7.22 - 9.37)
1.85 (1.18 - 2.90)
6.96 (5.11 - 9.49)
4.54 (2.44 - 8.42)
0.11 (0.08 - 0.14)
0.9 (0.05 - 0.14)
0.07 (0.05 - 0.09)
0.06 (0.04 - 0.51)
0.13 (0.10 - 0.17)
0.10 (0.06 - 0.17)
11/57 (19%) patients died during admission, and the median time to death was 14 days (4 -156 days). Three patients withdrew from the study (one after 12 and two after 37 days of treatment). The median duration of treatment was 131 days (range: 51- 426 days). One (10%) of 10 patients with C. gattii died compared with 6 (24%) of 25 patients with C. neoformans var grubii infection (p = 0.65). Complications at discharge included four patients with bilateral blindness (no light perception), 4 with uni-ocular blindness and one with complete visual and hearing loss. All cases of blindness occurred in patients with opening CSF pressures of ≥ 30cm CSF - 9 of 28 patients with opening pressure ≥ 30cm CSF developed blindness compared with none of 17 patients with opening pressure < 30 cm CSF, p = 0.008). Five of 9 patients with blindness (56%) had papilloedema at baseline compared with 14 (39%) of 36 patients with no visual loss (odds ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 0.33 - 11.09, p = 0.47). There were no differences in the rates of papilloedema, blindness or opening CSF pressure > 30cmCSF by infecting species. Fourteen patients had other neurological deficits including blurred vision and/or cranial nerve palsies.
On univariate analysis the admission findings associated with death were presence of underlying disease, history of convulsions, Glasgow Coma Score ≤ 11, age ≥ 60 years, lower platelet count, CSF cryptococcal antigen titre ≥ 1/512 and CSF yeast cell count > 400 cells/ml. Six of 21 (29%) patients with CSF opening pressure < 30cm CSF died, compared with 7 of 33 (21%) patients with opening pressures ≥ 30cm CSF (odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.16 - 2.94, p = 0.745). Two of 9 patients with CD4 lymphopenia died.
Multivariate analysis was limited by the small number of deaths. We tested the interaction between easily measured clinical parameters (age ≥ 60 years, underlying disease, Glasgow coma score < 11 and convulsions) with outcome. Only age ≥ 60 years and a history of convulsions were independently associated with death (Additional file 1: table S1). Length of history had no impact on outcome. We could detect no differences in clinical phenotype or outcome according to infecting species.
Two years after diagnosis a further 4 patients had died (total deaths 15 of 57, 26.3%). 14 patients (24.6%) had made complete recoveries with no residual deficit. One died due to multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, complicated by relapse of cryptococcal disease. Three patients with underlying disease continued on long term fluconazole prophylaxis. It was not possible to determine the 2 year outcome in 9 of the 57 patients.
Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV uninfected patients in tropical Viet Nam is most commonly due to Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii. Most patients (81%) have no concomitant immunosuppressive disease, although CD4 lymphopenia was detected in 9 patients, 3 of whom had no other underlying conditions.
C. neoformans var grubii, the commonest cause of cryptococcal meningitis since the HIV epidemic, usually occurs in patients with an underlying immunosuppressive condition and has rarely been reported in the absence of underlying disease, in southeast Asia or elsewhere [2, 12, 14, 22–27]. Classical teaching would suggest that, in our tropical location, more cases would have been due to infection with Cryptococcus gattii[28, 29]. Against expectation, in our series C. neoformans var grubii infection outweighed C. gattii infection 2.5-fold. We could only revive isolates for speciation from 35 patients, but since the study has finished we continue to isolate C. neoformans var grubii and C. gattii from HIV uninfected patients in the ratio 3:1. We could not detect differences in the rate of underlying disease according to infecting species, although our study lacked power since there were only 10 cases of C. gattii infection.
All patients in our study had positive CSF India ink examination and culture - a rate higher than generally reported in the literature . This may be a reflection of the large volumes of CSF (5 - 10 mls) routinely taken from patients with suspected meningitis in our hospital in order to exclude tuberculous meningitis.
In the tropical Northern Territories of Australia the incidences of C. gattii and C. neoformans infection are equal. In Queensland the experience is more like our own - in a 3 year period C. neoformans infections outweighed C. gattii 5 fold, although the total number of cases is not clear from the report. However, it is not clear whether these cases were meningoencephalitis or extra-neural disease, and the varietal form of C. neoformans was not described for the majority of isolates.
All the C. neoformans var grubii strains from our series were of URA5-RFLP molecular type VN1, as also recently reported from China . In that series, there was remarkable genetic homogeneity between the VN1 isolates, perhaps representing a strain in Asia with increased ability to cause infection in the immunocompetent.
The significance of CD4 lymphopenia in our patients is uncertain. Only 20 patients had the investigation, and the test was not performed serially. Thus it is not clear whether it represents a transient phenomenon as a consequence of infection, or whether it represents a genuine pre-existing immune deficit, such as idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia, known to be associated with an increased risk of cryptococcosis . HIV infection is unlikely since each patient received at least 2 HIV antibody tests.
While cryptococcal meningitis remains rare in HIV uninfected patients, when it occurs the consequences are severe . The death rate in our patients is 19% at hospital discharge, and blindness affects 20% of survivors. Most patients were admitted to provincial or district hospitals before transfer to our centre, and delay in diagnosis may play a role in the high death rate seen in this disease, although we did not find length of history to be associated with death. The independent variables associated with death were age and convulsions. We did not find the presence of underlying disease to be independently associated with outcome, although analysis was limited by the low number of deaths. CSF opening pressure at baseline was highly associated with development of blindness, but there was no association with papilloedema, which probably reflects the fact that papilloedema is a late indicator of raised intracranial pressure. However, it could be a function of the size of our study. Only 25% of patients made a complete recovery.
Historically, the disease phenotypes due to infection with C. neoformans var grubii and C. gattii are considered to be different. We found no difference in clinical phenotype between the 2 infections, and the pattern of disease seen in our cases mimics that seen in case series of C. gattii infection published from Papua New Guinea[17, 27]. Like us, Seaton et al found presence of convulsions to be a predictor of death in patients with C. gattii meningitis. In addition, the rate of blindness in our patients is similar to that reported for C. gattii infection in immunocompetent adults, and higher than in HIV infected patients. The lack of difference in the clinical phenotypes of disease according to infecting species and the difference in rates of visual loss between HIV positive and negative patients support the hypothesis that host immune status is key in determining clinical phenotype in cryptococcal disease. There are retrospective data suggesting that immune mediating drugs (corticosteroids) may reduce the risk of blindness in C. gattii infection [34, 35]. The similar clinical phenotype seen in our predominantly C. neoformans var grubii infected patients suggests that this may be a worthwhile hypothesis to test in our patients.
There are no established breakpoints for anti-fungal drugs and C. neoformans, which makes the interpretation of anti-fungal MICs difficult [36–39]. The geometric mean MICs of flucytosine and amphotericin B were statistically significantly higher for C. neoformans var grubii. This is consistent with the experience in Malaysia, but differs from reports from Brazil and Taiwan which found C. gattii to be inherently less susceptible to amphotericin B and flucytosine [39–41]. Thompson found no difference in MICs by species, but was comparing strains from multiple geographic regions. Our data are reassuring, suggesting that it is safe to extrapolate treatment doses for our patients with C. gattii from trials in C. neoformans infection. However, the clinical significance of differences in MICs of flucytosine and amphotericin B remain unclear. MIC data were available for only 7 of the isolates from the 11 patients that died - we could not demonstrate any correlation between the MIC of any drug and patient outcome.
Recently, Cryptococcus gattii has been seen to establish new ecological niches, with subsequent successful human-mediated dispersal . It is possible that disease incidence in the immunocompetent will increase [44, 45]. There has been little change in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis over the past 10 years. Amphotericin B remains a key component of treatment, but therapy is protracted, expensive and difficult to administer. Combined with flucytosine, it has been associated with more rapid CSF sterilisation in HIV patients, and more recently slower rates of CSF sterilisation have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of death [46, 47]. The identification of a reliable surrogate marker of outcome in cryptococcal meningitis enables anti-fungal therapeutic trials to be undertaken with smaller numbers of patients, and it should now be possible to answer clinical questions in groups where disease is rare, such as HIV uninfected patients. However, differences in complication rates, such as blindness, between HIV infected and uninfected patients may be due to differences in disease pathogenesis (perhaps immune mediated) and clinical endpoint trials, although difficult, may still be necessary.
In HIV uninfected individuals in Vietnam, cryptococcal meningitis occurs predominantly in people with no clear predisposing factor and is most commonly due to C. neoformans var grubii. The pattern of disease is similar to that described in patients with C. gattii meningitis, suggesting underlying immune status is key in generating clinical phenotype. The rates of mortality and visual loss are high and independent of infecting species.
The study was funded by the Wellcome Trust (UK) and JND was supported by a British Infection Society Fellowship. The funding sources had no involvement in study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing of the report, or the decision to submit for publication.
With thanks to Tien Bui and Associate Professor Dee Carter, Head of Microbiology Biochemistry, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences University of Sydney for advice, and Dr Wieland Meyer, Associate Professor, Westmead Millenium Institute for Medical Research, Sydney, Australia for providing control strains.
- Casadevall A, Perfect JR: Cryptococcus neoformans. 1998, Washington: American Society for Microbiology Press, 1,View Article
- Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE: Epidemiologic differences between the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Am J Epidemiol. 1984, 120 (1): 123-130.PubMed
- Kwon-Chung KJ, Sorrell TC, Dromer F, Fung E, Levitz SM: Cryptococcosis: clinical and biological aspects. Med Mycol. 2000, 38 (Suppl 1): 205-213.View ArticlePubMed
- Duncan C, Schwantje H, Stephen C, Campbell J, Bartlett K: Cryptococcus gattii in wildlife of Vancouver Island British Columbia, Canada. J Wildl Dis. 2006, 42 (1): 175-178.View ArticlePubMed
- Hoang LM, Maguire JA, Doyle P, Fyfe M, Roscoe DL: Cryptococcus neoformans infections at Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (1997-2002): epidemiology microbiology and histopathology. J Med Microbiol. 2004, 53 (Pt 9): 935-940. 10.1099/jmm.0.05427-0.View ArticlePubMed
- Kidd SE, Hagen F, Tscharke RL, Huynh M, Bartlett KH, Fyfe M, Macdougall L, Boekhout T, Kwon-Chung KJ, Meyer W: A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004, 101 (49): 17258-17263. 10.1073/pnas.0402981101.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Stephen C, Lester S, Black W, Fyfe M, Raverty S: Multispecies outbreak of cryptococcosis on southern Vancouver Island British Columbia. Can Vet J. 2002, 43 (10): 792-794.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Bennett JE, Kwon-Chung KJ, Howard DH: Epidemiologic differences among serotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans. Am J Epidemiol. 1977, 105 (6): 582-586.PubMed
- Diamond RD, Bennett JE: Prognostic factors in cryptococcal meningitis. A study in 111 cases. Ann Intern Med. 1974, 80 (2): 176-181.View ArticlePubMed
- Dismukes WE, Cloud G, Gallis HA, Kerkering TM, Medoff G, Craven PC, Kaplowitz LG, Fisher JF, Gregg CR, Bowles CA, et al: Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis with combination amphotericin B and flucytosine for four as compared with six weeks. N Engl J Med. 1987, 317 (6): 334-341.View ArticlePubMed
- Dromer F, Mathoulin S, Dupont B, Brugiere O, Letenneur L: Comparison of the efficacy of amphotericin B and fluconazole in the treatment of cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients: retrospective analysis of 83 cases. French Cryptococcosis Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1996, 22 (Suppl 2): S154-S160.View ArticlePubMed
- Dromer F, Mathoulin S, Dupont B, Laporte A: Epidemiology of cryptococcosis in France: a 9-year survey (1985-1993). French Cryptococcosis Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1996, 23 (1): 82-90.View ArticlePubMed
- Dromer F, Mathoulin S, Dupont B, Letenneur L, Ronin O: Individual and environmental factors associated with infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D. French Cryptococcosis Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1996, 23 (1): 91-96.View ArticlePubMed
- Mitchell DH, Sorrell TC, Allworth AM, Heath CH, McGregor AR, Papanaoum K, Richards MJ, Gottlieb T: Cryptococcal disease of the CNS in immunocompetent hosts: influence of cryptococcal variety on clinical manifestations and outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 1995, 20 (3): 611-616.View ArticlePubMed
- Moosa MY, Coovadia YM: Cryptococcal meningitis in Durban South Africa: a comparison of clinical features laboratory findings and outcome for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1997, 24 (2): 131-134.View ArticlePubMed
- Rozenbaum R, Goncalves AJ: Clinical epidemiological study of 171 cases of cryptococcosis. Clin Infect Dis. 1994, 18 (3): 369-380.View ArticlePubMed
- Seaton RA, Verma N, Naraqi S, Wembri JP, Warrell DA: Visual loss in immunocompetent patients with Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii meningitis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997, 91 (1): 44-49. 10.1016/S0035-9203(97)90391-6.View ArticlePubMed
- Stevens DA, Denning DW, Shatsky S, Armstrong RW, Adler JD, Lewis BH: Cryptococcal meningitis in the immunocompromised host: intracranial hypertension and other complications. Mycopathologia. 1999, 146 (1): 1-8. 10.1023/A:1007031514495.View ArticlePubMed
- van der Horst CM, Saag MS, Cloud GA, Hamill RJ, Graybill JR, Sobel JD, Johnson PC, Tuazon CU, Kerkering T, Moskovitz BL, et al: Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group and AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1997, 337 (1): 15-21. 10.1056/NEJM199707033370103.View ArticlePubMed
- Perfect JR, Dismukes WE, Dromer F, Goldman DL, Graybill JR, Hamill RJ, Harrison TS, Larsen RA, Lortholary O, Nguyen MH, et al: Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Cryptococcal Disease: 2010 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2010, 50 (3): 291-322. 10.1086/649858.View ArticlePubMed
- Meyer W, Castaneda A, Jackson S, Huynh M, Castaneda E: Molecular typing of IberoAmerican Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003, 9 (2): 189-195.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Chuang YM, Ho YC, Chang HT, Yu CJ, Yang PC, Hsueh PR: Disseminated cryptococcosis in HIV-uninfected patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008, 27 (4): 307-310. 10.1007/s10096-007-0430-1.View ArticlePubMed
- Chuang YM, Ku SC, Liaw SJ, Wu SC, Ho YC, Yu CJ, Hsueh PR: Disseminated Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii infections in intensive care units. Epidemiol Infect. 2009, 1-8.
- Jongwutiwes U, Sungkanuparph S, Kiertiburanakul S: Comparison of clinical features and survival between cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative patients. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008, 61 (2): 111-115.PubMed
- Kiertiburanakul S, Wirojtananugoon S, Pracharktam R, Sungkanuparph S: Cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients. Int J Infect Dis. 2006, 10 (1): 72-78. 10.1016/j.ijid.2004.12.004.View ArticlePubMed
- Shih CC, Chen YC, Chang SC, Luh KT, Hsieh WC: Cryptococcal meningitis in non-HIV-infected patients. QJM. 2000, 93 (4): 245-251. 10.1093/qjmed/93.4.245.View ArticlePubMed
- Seaton RA, Naraqi S, Wembri JP, Warrell DA: Predictors of outcome in Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii meningitis. QJM. 1996, 89 (6): 423-428.View ArticlePubMed
- Fisher D, Burrow J, Lo D, Currie B: Cryptococcus neoformans in tropical northern Australia: predominantly variant gattii with good outcomes. Aust N Z J Med. 1993, 23 (6): 678-682.View ArticlePubMed
- Speed B, Dunt D: Clinical and host differences between infections with the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin Infect Dis. 1995, 21 (1): 28-34. discussion 35-26View ArticlePubMed
- Chen S, Sorrell T, Nimmo G, Speed B, Currie B, Ellis D, Marriott D, Pfeiffer T, Parr D, Byth K: Epidemiology and host- and variety-dependent characteristics of infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans in Australia and New Zealand. Australasian Cryptococcal Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 2000, 31 (2): 499-508. 10.1086/313992.View ArticlePubMed
- Chen J, Varma A, Diaz MR, Litvintseva AP, Wollenberg KK, Kwon-Chung KJ: Cryptococcus neoformans strains and infection in apparently immunocompetent patients China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008, 14 (5): 755-762. 10.3201/eid1405.071312.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Netea MG, Brouwer AE, Hoogendoorn EH, Van der Meer JW, Koolen M, Verweij PE, Kullberg BJ: Two patients with cryptococcal meningitis and idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia: defective cytokine production and reversal by recombinant interferon- gamma therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004, 39 (9): e83-87. 10.1086/425121.View ArticlePubMed
- Pappas PG, Perfect JR, Cloud GA, Larsen RA, Pankey GA, Lancaster DJ, Henderson H, Kauffman CA, Haas DW, Saccente M, et al: Cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in the era of effective azole therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2001, 33 (5): 690-699. 10.1086/322597.View ArticlePubMed
- Seaton RA, Verma N, Naraqi S, Wembri JP, Warrell DA: The effect of corticosteroids on visual loss in Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii meningitis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997, 91 (1): 50-52. 10.1016/S0035-9203(97)90393-X.View ArticlePubMed
- Phillips P, Chapman K, Sharp M, Harrison P, Vortel J, Steiner T, Bowie W: Dexamethasone in Cryptococcus gattii central nervous system infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2009, 49 (4): 591-595. 10.1086/603554.View ArticlePubMed
- Archibald LK, Tuohy MJ, Wilson DA, Nwanyanwu O, Kazembe PN, Tansuphasawadikul S, Eampokalap B, Chaovavanich A, Reller LB, Jarvis WR, et al: Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004, 10 (1): 143-145.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Pfaller MA, Buschelman B, Bale MJ, Lancaster M, Espinel-Ingroff A, Rex JH, Rinaldi MG: Multicenter comparison of a colorimetric microdilution broth method with the reference macrodilution method for in vitro susceptibility testing of yeast isolates. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1994, 19 (1): 9-13. 10.1016/0732-8893(94)90044-2.View ArticlePubMed
- Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Boyken L, Rice C, Tendolkar S, Hollis RJ, Doern GV, Diekema DJ: Global trends in the antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans (1990 to 2004). J Clin Microbiol. 2005, 43 (5): 2163-2167. 10.1128/JCM.43.5.2163-2167.2005.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Tay ST, Tanty Haryanty T, Ng KP, Rohani MY, Hamimah H: In vitro susceptibilities of Malaysian clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii to five antifungal drugs. Mycoses. 2006, 49 (4): 324-330. 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2006.01242.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Chen YC, Chang SC, Shih CC, Hung CC, Luhbd KT, Pan YS, Hsieh WC: Clinical features and in vitro susceptibilities of two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans in Taiwan. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000, 36 (3): 175-183. 10.1016/S0732-8893(99)00137-6.View ArticlePubMed
- Trilles L, Fernandez-Torres B, Lazera Mdos S, Wanke B, Guarro J: In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus gattii. J Clin Microbiol. 2004, 42 (10): 4815-4817. 10.1128/JCM.42.10.4815-4817.2004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Thompson GR, Wiederhold NP, Fothergill AW, Vallor AC, Wickes BL, Patterson TF: Antifungal susceptibilities among different serotypes of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009, 53 (1): 309-311. 10.1128/AAC.01216-08.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Kidd SE, Bach PJ, Hingston AO, Mak S, Chow Y, MacDougall L, Kronstad JW, Bartlett KH: Cryptococcus gattii dispersal mechanisms British Columbia, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007, 13 (1): 51-57. 10.3201/eid1301.060823.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Bartlett KH, Kidd SE, Kronstad JW: The Emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2008, 10 (1): 58-65. 10.1007/s11908-008-0011-1.View ArticlePubMed
- Upton A, Fraser JA, Kidd SE, Bretz C, Bartlett KH, Heitman J, Marr KA: First contemporary case of human infection with Cryptococcus gattii in Puget Sound: evidence for spread of the Vancouver Island outbreak. J Clin Microbiol. 2007, 45 (9): 3086-3088. 10.1128/JCM.00593-07.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Bicanic T, Muzoora C, Brouwer AE, Meintjes G, Longley N, Taseera K, Rebe K, Loyse A, Jarvis J, Bekker LG, et al: Independent association between rate of clearance of infection and clinical outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: analysis of a combined cohort of 262 patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2009, 49 (5): 702-709. 10.1086/604716.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Brouwer AE, Rajanuwong A, Chierakul W, Griffin GE, Larsen RA, White NJ, Harrison TS: Combination antifungal therapies for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2004, 363 (9423): 1764-1767. 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16301-0.View ArticlePubMed
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/10/199/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.