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  1. The emergence of drug resistance is one of the most important threats to tuberculosis control programs. This study was aimed to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with resistance to isoniazid (...

    Authors: Belay Tessema, Joerg Beer, Frank Emmrich, Ulrich Sack and Arne C Rodloff
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:37
  2. The world has recently experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century that lasted 14 months from June 2009 to August 2010. This study aimed to compare the timing, geographic spread and community ...

    Authors: Liana Martirosyan, W John Paget, Pernille Jorgensen, Caroline S Brown, Tamara J Meerhoff, Dmitriy Pereyaslov and Joshua A Mott
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:36
  3. The first meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugate vaccine was licensed in 1999 and introduced in the United Kingdom. Countries that have implemented the MenC vaccine since then in their national immunisatio...

    Authors: Patricia Kaaijk, Arie van der Ende, Guy Berbers, Germie PJM van den Dobbelsteen and Nynke Y Rots
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:35
  4. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis in the developed world. Little is known about its epidemiology in the developing world, where the majority of deaths from neonatal infections...

    Authors: Claudia Turner, Paul Turner, Linda Po, Naw Maner, Aruni De Zoysa, Baharak Afshar, Androulla Efstratiou, Paul T Heath and François Nosten
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:34
  5. Vaginal pH is related to genital tract inflammation and changes in the bacterial flora, both suggested cofactors for persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. To evaluate the relationship between va...

    Authors: Megan A Clarke, Ana Cecilia Rodriguez, Julia C Gage, Rolando Herrero, Allan Hildesheim, Sholom Wacholder, Robert Burk and Mark Schiffman
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:33
  6. Establishing antibody correlates of protection against malaria in human field studies and clinical trials requires, amongst others, an accurate estimation of antibody levels. For polymorphic antigens such as a...

    Authors: Kwadwo A Kusi, Daniel Dodoo, Samuel Bosomprah, Marjolein van der Eijk, Bart W Faber, Clemens HM Kocken and Edmond J Remarque
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:32
  7. Inter-rater agreement in the interpretation of chest X-ray (CXR) films is crucial for clinical and epidemiological studies of tuberculosis. We compared the readings of CXR films used for a survey of tuberculos...

    Authors: Shinsaku Sakurada, Nguyen TL Hang, Naoki Ishizuka, Emiko Toyota, Le D Hung, Pham T Chuc, Luu T Lien, Pham H Thuong, Pham TN Bich, Naoto Keicho and Nobuyuki Kobayashi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:31
  8. In acute-care hospitals, no evidence of a protective effect of healthcare worker (HCW) vaccination on hospital-acquired influenza (HAI) in patients has been documented. Our study objective was to ascertain the...

    Authors: Thomas Bénet, Corinne Régis, Nicolas Voirin, Olivier Robert, Bruno Lina, Silene Cronenberger, Brigitte Comte, Brigitte Coppéré and Philippe Vanhems
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:30
  9. 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza posed an increased risk of severe illness among pregnant women. Data on risk factors associated with death of pregnant women and neonates with pH1N1 infections are limited ...

    Authors: Peng-jun Zhang, Xiao-li Li, Bin Cao, Shi-gui Yang, Li-rong Liang, Li Gu, Zhen Xu, Ke Hu, Hong-yuan Zhang, Xi-xin Yan, Wen-bao Huang, Wei Chen, Jing-xiao Zhang, Lan-juan Li and Chen Wang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:29
  10. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection is one of the most common HIV-related opportunistic infections in Southeast Asia. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a complication related to antir...

    Authors: Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Thira Sirisanthana and Virat Sirisanthana
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:28
  11. In Emergency and Medical Admission Departments (EDs and MADs), prompt recognition and appropriate infection control management of patients with Highly Infectious Diseases (HIDs, e.g. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers a...

    Authors: Francesco M Fusco, Stefan Schilling, Giuseppina De Iaco, Hans-Reinhard Brodt, Philippe Brouqui, Helena C Maltezou, Barbara Bannister, René Gottschalk, Gail Thomson, Vincenzo Puro and Giuseppe Ippolito
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:27
  12. Previous controlled studies on the effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) - namely the use of facemasks and intensified hand hygiene - in preventing household transmission of influenza have not produ...

    Authors: Thorsten Suess, Cornelius Remschmidt, Susanne B Schink, Brunhilde Schweiger, Andreas Nitsche, Kati Schroeder, Joerg Doellinger, Jeanette Milde, Walter Haas, Irina Koehler, Gérard Krause and Udo Buchholz
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:26
  13. A protocol for cervical cancer screening among sexually active women 25 to 65 years of age was introduced in 2006 in Catalonia, Spain to increase coverage and to recommend a 3-year-interval between screening c...

    Authors: Raquel Ibáñez, Judit Moreno-Crespi, Montserrat Sardà, Josefina Autonell, Montserrat Fibla, Cristina Gutiérrez, Belen Lloveras, María Alejo, Isabel Català, Francesc Alameda, Miquel Casas, F Xavier Bosch and Silvia de Sanjosé
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:25
  14. Europe was certified to be polio-free in 2002 by the WHO. However, wild polioviruses remain endemic in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria, occasionally causing polio outbreaks, as in Tajikistan in 2010....

    Authors: Claudia Reinheimer, Imke Friedrichs, Holger F Rabenau and Hans W Doerr
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:24
  15. More than three billion populations are living under the threat of Japanese encephalitis in South East Asian (SEA) countries including India. The pathogenesis of this disease is not clearly understood and is p...

    Authors: Sujit Kumar Pujhari, Radha Kanta Ratho, Sudesh Prabhakar, Baijayantimala Mishra and Manish Modi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:23
  16. Despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), suboptimal treatment outcomes have been observed among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users. As there is an urgent need to improve responses to antiretr...

    Authors: Sassan Sangsari, M-J Milloy, Amir Ibrahim, Thomas Kerr, Ruth Zhang, Julio Montaner and Evan Wood
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:22
  17. Very few data are available on treatment outcomes of adolescents living with HIV infection (whether perinatally acquired or sexually acquired) in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study therefore compared the tr...

    Authors: Mweete D Nglazi, Katharina Kranzer, Pearl Holele, Richard Kaplan, Daniella Mark, Heather Jaspan, Stephen D Lawn, Robin Wood and Linda-Gail Bekker
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:21
  18. Leptospires are presumed to enter their host via small abrasions or breaches of the skin. The intraperitoneal route, although commonly used in guinea pig and hamster models of leptospirosis, does not reflect c...

    Authors: Yan Zhang, Xiao-Li Lou, Hong-Liang Yang, Xiao-Kui Guo, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Ping He and Xu-Cheng Jiang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:20
  19. Leptospirosis has recently been discussed as an emerging infectious disease in many contexts, including changes in environmental drivers of disease transmission and the emergence of serovars. In this paper, we...

    Authors: Colleen L Lau, Chris Skelly, Lee D Smythe, Scott B Craig and Philip Weinstein
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:19
  20. Kidney disease is an important complication in HIV infected people, and this may be related to infection or antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our aim is to assess renal function in HIV infected paediatric patients...

    Authors: Giuseppe Pontrelli, Nicola Cotugno, Donato Amodio, Paola Zangari, Hyppolite K Tchidjou, Stefania Baldassari, Paolo Palma and Stefania Bernardi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:18
  21. Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) is considered a rare cause of granulomatous hepatitis. Due to the fastidious growth characteristics of the bacteria, the limited sensitivity of histopathological stains, and the...

    Authors: Thomas R VanderHeyden, Sherri L Yong, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Ricardo G Maggi, Amanda R Mihalik, Jorge P Parada and Claus J Fimmel
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:17
  22. The first-ever round of school-based mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel together with mebendazole targeting school-aged children in endemic districts was conducted in 2009 by the National Neglect...

    Authors: Mary H Hodges, Nsa Dada, Anna Warmsley, Jusufu Paye, Momodu M Bangura, Emanuel Nyorkor, Mustapha Sonnie and Yaobi Zhang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:16
  23. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is considered the most important cause of death from infectious disease in developed countries. Severity assessment scores partially address the difficulties in identifying h...

    Authors: Rodrigo M Narvaez-Rivera, Adrian Rendon, Mario C Salinas-Carmona and Adrian G Rosas-Taraco
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:15
  24. HIV-associated general immune activation is a strong predictor for HIV disease progression, suggesting that chronic immune activation may drive HIV pathogenesis. Consequently, immunomodulating agents may decel...

    Authors: Christa Kasang, Albrecht Ulmer, Norbert Donhauser, Barbara Schmidt, August Stich, Hartwig Klinker, Samuel Kalluvya, Eleni Koutsilieri, Axel Rethwilm and Carsten Scheller
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:14
  25. Severe Clostridium difficile toxin-induced enteritis is characterized by exuberant intestinal tissue inflammation, epithelial disruption and diarrhea. Adenosine, through its action on the adenosine A2A receptor, ...

    Authors: Cirle Alcantara Warren, Gina M Calabrese, Yuesheng Li, Sean W Pawlowski, Robert A Figler, Jayson Rieger, Peter B Ernst, Joel Linden and Richard L Guerrant
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:13
  26. Influenza infections may result in different clinical presentations. This study aims to determine the clinical differences between circulating influenza strains in a young healthy adult population in the tropics.

    Authors: Jonathan Yap, Chi Hsien Tan, Alex R Cook, Jin Phang Loh, Paul A Tambyah, Boon Huan Tan and Vernon J Lee
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:12
  27. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a known group at risk for hepatitis A and outbreaks among this group are frequent. In Barcelona, vaccination for MSM has been recommended since 1994. In 1998 a vaccination c...

    Authors: Cecilia Tortajada, Patricia G de Olalla, Elia Diez, Rosa M Pinto, Albert Bosch, Unai Perez, Milagros Sanz and Joan A Caylà
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:11
  28. Confirming tuberculosis (TB) disease in suspects in resource limited settings is challenging and calls for the development of more suitable diagnostic tools. Different Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection ...

    Authors: Novel N Chegou, Gillian F Black, Andre G Loxton, Kim Stanley, Paulin N Essone, Michel R Klein, Shreemanta K Parida, Stefan HE Kaufmann, T Mark Doherty, Annemieke H Friggen, Kees L Franken, Tom H Ottenhoff and Gerhard Walzl
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:10
  29. Only 5% of the estimated global multidrug resistant TB (MDRTB) load is currently detected. Endemic Mumbai with increasing MDR would benefit from the introduction of molecular methods to detect resistance.

    Authors: Monica Prem Tolani, Desiree Therese Blossom D'souza and Nerges Furdoon Mistry
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:9
  30. Buruli ulcer (BU), a neglected tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, has been reported in over 30 countries worldwide and is highly endemic in rural West and Central Africa. The mode of transmis...

    Authors: Dziedzom K de Souza, Charles Quaye, Lydia Mosi, Phyllis Addo and Daniel A Boakye
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:8
  31. Refugees are at risk for poor outcomes from acute respiratory infections (ARI) because of overcrowding, suboptimal living conditions, and malnutrition. We implemented surveillance for respiratory viruses in Da...

    Authors: Jamal A Ahmed, Mark A Katz, Eric Auko, M Kariuki Njenga, Michelle Weinberg, Bryan K Kapella, Heather Burke, Raymond Nyoka, Anthony Gichangi, Lilian W Waiboci, Abdirahman Mahamud, Mohamed Qassim, Babu Swai, Burton Wagacha, David Mutonga, Margaret Nguhi…
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:7
  32. Placental malaria (PM) is associated with prenatal malaise, but many PM+ infants are born without symptoms. As malaria has powerful immunomodulatory effects, we tested the hypothesis that PM predicts reduced T...

    Authors: Brigitte Walther, David JC Miles, Pauline Waight, Melba S Palmero, Olubukola Ojuola, Ebrima S Touray, Hilton Whittle, Marianne van der Sande, Sarah Crozier and Katie L Flanagan
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:6
  33. Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8 are important in single-stranded viral RNA recognition and may play a role in HIV infection and disease progression. We analyzed TLR7/8 expression and signaling in monocytes f...

    Authors: Hua Nian, Wen-Qing Geng, Hua-Lu Cui, Ming-jia Bao, Zi-ning Zhang, Min Zhang, Ying Pan, Qing-Hai Hu and Hong Shang
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:5
  34. Leptospirosis has a varied clinical presentation with complications like myocarditis and acute renal failure. There are many predictors of severity and mortality including clinical and laboratory parameters. E...

    Authors: Dinesh LB Dassanayake, Harith Wimalaratna, Damith Nandadewa, Asanka Nugaliyadda, Champa N Ratnatunga and Suneth B Agampodi
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:4
  35. In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of ...

    Authors: Blandine Rammaert, Sophie Goyet, Julien Beauté, Sopheak Hem, Vantha Te, Patrich Lorn Try, Charles Mayaud, Laurence Borand, Philippe Buchy, Bertrand Guillard and Sirenda Vong
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:3
  36. The epidemiology of meningococcal meningitis in the African meningitis belt is characterised by seasonality, localised epidemics and epidemic waves. To facilitate research and surveillance, we aimed to develop...

    Authors: Haoua Tall, Stéphane Hugonnet, Philippe Donnen, Michèle Dramaix-Wilmet, Ludovic Kambou, Frank Drabo and Judith E Mueller
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:2
  37. The human malaria parasite remains a burden in developing nations. It is responsible for up to one million deaths a year, a number that could rise due to increasing multi-drug resistance to all antimalarial dr...

    Authors: Serena Cervantes, Paige E Stout, Jacques Prudhomme, Sebastian Engel, Matthew Bruton, Michael Cervantes, David Carter, Young Tae-Chang, Mark E Hay, William Aalbersberg, Julia Kubanek and Karine G Le Roch
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:1
  38. Cardiac tuberculosis is rare and usually manifests as tuberculous pericarditis. Involvement of other part of the heart is unusual and descriptions in the pediatric literature are confined to few case reports r...

    Authors: Cantinotti M, De Gaudio M, de Martino M, Assanta N, Moschetti R, Veneruso G, Crocetti M, Murzi B, Chiappini E and Galli L
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:359
  39. Immunocompromised patients, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sufferers have an increased risk of mortality, following influenza infection. In the recent pandemic, influenza A H1NI virus caused 18449 ...

    Authors: Konstantinos Tselios, Ritsa Tsioka, Alexandros Sarantopoulos, Eleni Mouloudi and Panagiota Boura
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:358
  40. Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) is infamous for its high case-fatality proportion (CFP) and the ease with which it spreads among contacts of the diseased. We describe the course of the EHF outbreak in Masindi, ...

    Authors: Matthias Borchert, Imaam Mutyaba, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Julius Lutwama, Henry Luwaga, Geoffrey Bisoborwa, John Turyagaruka, Patricia Pirard, Nestor Ndayimirije, Paul Roddy and Patrick Van Der Stuyft
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:357
  41. A substantial prevalence of mild neurocognitive disorders has been reported in HIV, also in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This includes a new disorder that has been termed asymp...

    Authors: Magnus Gisslén, Richard W Price and Staffan Nilsson
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:356
  42. During the initial containment phase of influenza A/H1N1 2009, close contacts of cases were traced to provide antiviral prophylaxis within 48 h after exposure and to alert them on signs of disease for early di...

    Authors: Corien M Swaan, Rolf Appels, Mirjam EE Kretzschmar and Jim E van Steenbergen
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:355
  43. Influenza A virus has been detected in the blood of some infected individuals, and may pose a safety concern for collection, handling and transport of specimens for epidemiological and public health investigat...

    Authors: Xue Wang, Olga Zoueva, Jiangqin Zhao, Zhiping Ye and Indira Hewlett
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:354
  44. A new DNA line probe assay (Speed-oligo Mycobacteria, Vircell) has been launched for rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium spp. from cultures. Compared to other line-probe assays, Speed-oligo Mycobacteria covers...

    Authors: Sabine Hofmann-Thiel, Laziz Turaev, Tarig Alnour, Lore Drath, Maria Müllerova and Harald Hoffmann
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:353
  45. Concomitant treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) presents a series of challenges for treatment compliance for both providers and patients. We carried out this study t...

    Authors: Magda Maruza, Maria FP Militão Albuquerque, Isabella Coimbra, Líbia V Moura, Ulisses R Montarroyos, Demócrito B Miranda Filho, Heloísa R Lacerda, Laura C Rodrigues and Ricardo AA Ximenes
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:351
  46. In temperate zones, all-cause mortality exhibits a marked seasonality, and one of the main causes of winter excess mortality is influenza. There is a tradition of using statistical models based on mortality fr...

    Authors: Jens Nielsen, Anne Mazick, Steffen Glismann and Kåre Mølbak
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:350
  47. Deficient serum vitamin D levels have been associated with incidence of tuberculosis (TB), and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, to our knowledge, no studies on vitamin D status and tuberculin ski...

    Authors: Alberto Arnedo-Pena, José Vicente Juan-Cerdán, Angeles Romeu-Garcia, Daniel Garcia-Ferrer, Rita Holguín-Gómez, Jesús Iborra-Millet, Concepción Herrero-Carot, María Jesús Sanchis Piñana, Juan Bellido-Blasco, José Antonio Ferrero-Vega, Lourdes Safont Adsuara, Esther Silvestre Silvestre, Noemi Meseguer Ferrer and Vicenta Rodrigo Bartual
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:349
  48. Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI) and gastrointestinal illness. Our study is the first to analyze the characteristics of HBoV-positi...

    Authors: Wen-Kuan Liu, De-Hui Chen, Qian Liu, Huan-Xi Liang, Zi-Feng Yang, Sheng Qin and Rong Zhou
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:345
  49. Rhodococcus equi (R.equi) is an acid fast, GRAM + coccobacillus, which is widespread in the soil and causes pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections in immunocompromised people. In the context of HIV infection, R...

    Authors: Francesca Ferretti, Antonio Boschini, Cristiana Iabichino, Simonetta Gerevini, Paola De Nardi, Monica Guffanti, Giuseppe Balconi, Adriano Lazzarin and Paola Cinque
    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2011 11:343

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