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  1. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in HIV+ patients on different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens has been described. We aimed to characterize parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) and correlate with diff...

    Authors: Anderson José Gonçalves, Marcus Vinícius Almeida Braga, Pedro Henrique Santana, Luiz Antônio Pertilli Rodrigues Resende, Valdo José Dias da Silva and Dalmo Correia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1022

    Content type: Research

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  2. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection is thought to be more severe in cancer patients, but this has not been studied since the development of new cancer therapies, increasing antibiotic resistance and the intr...

    Authors: Nobuyoshi Mori, Ariel D. Szvalb, Javier A. Adachi, Jeffrey J. Tarrand and Victor E. Mulanovich

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1021

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Cryptococcosis is a major opportunistic invasive mycosis in immunocompromised patients, but it is also increasingly seen in immunocompetent patients. In the early stages of cryptococcosis, limitations of the d...

    Authors: Yanping Wang, Mi Yang, Yun Xia, Jia Yan, Jiaqi Zou and Dawei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1020

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  4. Only three other cases of rat bite fever caused by Streptobacillus notomytis in humans have been reported since this species was identified in 2015. Data specific to the differences in clinical features and geogr...

    Authors: Suchada Pongsuttiyakorn, Witchuda Kamolvit, Sunee Limsrivanichakorn, Arissa Phothisirisakulwong and Walaiporn Wangchinda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1017

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Anemia is the most common hematologic abnormalities in AIDS patients usually associated with disease progression and poor clinical outcomes. Zidovudine (AZT), which is one of the nucleoside reverse transcripta...

    Authors: Zegeye Getaneh, Worku Wale, Belete Chanie, Etetetu Temesgen, Metadele Abebe, Melesse Walie and Mulualem Lemma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1016

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The morbidity of rifampicin/multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis (RR/MDR-TBM) has shown an increasing trend globally. Its mortality rate is significantly higher than that of non-rifampicin/multidrug-resi...

    Authors: Mu-Tong Fang, You-Feng Su, Hui-Ru An, Pei-Ze Zhang, Guo-Fang Deng, Hou-Ming Liu, Zhi Mao, Jian-Feng Zeng, Guobao Li, Qian-Ting Yang and Zhong-Yuan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1015

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Convalescent plasma(CP) was utilized as potential therapy during COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. The study aimed at appraisal of CP transfusion safety and usefulness in COVID pneumonia.

    Authors: Tehmina Nafees Sonia Khan, Samina Naz Mukry, Shahtaj Masood, Lubna Meraj, Bikha Ram Devrajani, Javed Akram, Naveena Fatima, Sidra Maqsood, Ayesha Mahesar, Roomana Siddiqui, Sadia Ishaque, Muhammad Bilal Afzal, Sanam Mukhtar, Sara Ahmed, Arshi Naz and Tahir Sultan Shamsi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1014

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Rabies is a disease that still exists in developing countries and leads to more fatalities than other zoonotic diseases. Our study aimed to describe the profile of human exposures to animals over fifteen years...

    Authors: Cyrine Bennasrallah, Manel Ben Fredj, Moncef Mhamdi, Meriem Kacem, Wafa Dhouib, Imen Zemni, Hela Abroug and Asma Belguith Sriha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1013

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The receptor of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, is more abundant in kidney than in lung tissue, suggesting that kidney might be another important target...

    Authors: Tingting Xia, Wenjing Zhang, Yu Xu, Bin Wang, Zhiquan Yuan, Na Wu, Ying Xiang, Chengying Li, Yifan Shan, Weijia Xie, Youhao Wang, Yao Zhang, Li Bai and Yafei Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1012

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Contact investigation, the systematic evaluation of individuals in close contact with an infectious tuberculosis (TB) patient, is a key active case-finding strategy for global TB control. Better estimates of t...

    Authors: Mariana Velleca, Mohsen Malekinejad, Cecily Miller, Lucia Abascal Miguel, Hailey Reeves, Philip Hopewell and Elizabeth Fair

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1011

    Content type: Research

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  11. Intravenous drug abuse (IDA) is a known risk factor for infective endocarditis (IE) and is associated with frequent relapses, but its prognostic impact is still debated. The potential futility of surgery in th...

    Authors: Valentina Scheggi, Stefano Del Pace, Nicole Ceschia, Francesco Vanni, Irene Merilli, Edoardo Sottili, Leonardo Salcuni, Nicola Zoppetti, Bruno Alterini, Alfredo Cerillo, Niccolò Marchionni and Pier Luigi Stefàno

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1010

    Content type: Research

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  12. Diseases such as COVID-19 are spread through social contact. Reducing social contacts is required to stop disease spread in pandemics for which vaccines have not yet been developed. However, existing data on s...

    Authors: Audrey M. Dorélien, Aparna Ramen, Isabella Swanson and Rachelle Hill

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1009

    Content type: Research

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  13. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health concern that requires transdisciplinary and bio-social approaches. Despite the continuous calls for a transdisciplinary understanding of this problem, t...

    Authors: Alena Kamenshchikova, Petra F. G. Wolffs, Christian J. P. A. Hoebe, John Penders, Hyun Y. Park, Mateus S. Kambale and Klasien Horstman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1008

    Content type: Technical advance

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  14. Retention of patients who did not initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been persistently low compared to those who initiated ART. Understanding the temporal trends in clinical outcomes prior to ART initia...

    Authors: P. Wekesa, A. McLigeyo, K. Owuor, J. Mwangi, L. Isavwa and A. Katana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1007

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Hematology analyzers display abnormal parameters during malaria infection providing insightful information for suspecting and assessing malaria infection. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the potential...

    Authors: Jun Nishimura, Parag Dharap and Sebastien Raimbault

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1006

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Visceral leshimaniasis is a parasitic disease characterized by systemic infection of phagocytic cells and an intense inflammatory response. The progression of the disease or treatment may have an effect on hem...

    Authors: Elias Shiferaw, Fadil Murad, Mitikie Tigabie, Mareye Abebaw, Tadele Alemu, Sefanit Abate, Rezika Mohammed, Arega Yeshanew and Fitsumbrhan Tajebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1005

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Early identification of severe COVID-19 patients who will need intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up and providing rapid, aggressive supportive care may reduce mortality and provide optimal use of medical resour...

    Authors: Rahmet Guner, Bircan Kayaaslan, Imran Hasanoglu, Adalet Aypak, Hurrem Bodur, Ihsan Ates, Esragul Akinci, Deniz Erdem, Fatma Eser, Seval Izdes, Ayse Kaya Kalem, Aliye Bastug, Aysegul Karalezli, Aziz Ahmet Surel, Muge Ayhan, Selma Karaahmetoglu…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1004

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common pathogen that causes community-acquired pneumonia in school-age children. Macrolides are considered a first-line treatment for M. pneumoniae infection in children, but macrolide-...

    Authors: Jong Gyun Ahn, Hye-Kyung Cho, Donghe Li, Miyoung Choi, Jina Lee, Byung-Wook Eun, Dae Sun Jo, Su Eun Park, Eun Hwa Choi, Hyeon-Jong Yang and Ki Hwan Kim

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1003

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Through the comparison of the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of hospital human influenza (influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, H3N2, and B)-related and hospitalized avian-origin influenza A (H...

    Authors: Bin Fu, Zhengjie Wu, Lingtong Huang, Zhaohui Chai, Peidong Zheng, Qinmiao Sun, Silan Gu, Qiaomai Xu, Haiting Feng and Lingling Tang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1002

    Content type: Research article

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  20. As the transmission routes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are similar, previous studies based on separate research on HIV-1 and HCV assumed a similar transmission pa...

    Authors: Yu Wang, Xin Chen, Mei Ye, Wei Pang, Chiyu Zhang, Si-Dong Xiong and Yong-Tang Zheng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:1001

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  21. Infections caused by Enterococcus hirae are common in animals, with instances of transmission to humans being rare. Further, few cases have been reported in humans because of the difficulty in identifying the bac...

    Authors: Tomoaki Nakamura, Kazuhiro Ishikawa, Takahiro Matsuo, Fujimi Kawai, Yuki Uehara and Nobuyoshi Mori

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:999

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  22. Actinomyces odontolyticus is not commonly recognized as a causative microbe of liver abscess. The detection and identification of A. odontolyticus in laboratories and its recognition as a pathogen in clinical set...

    Authors: Shao-Lun Hsu, Chin-Ting Wu, Yuan-Chen Chang, Chia-Kwung Fan and Yuarn-Jang Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:998

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  23. Nonrandom multiple respiratory virus (RV) detection provides evidence for viral interference among respiratory viruses. However, little is known as to whether it occurs randomly.

    Authors: Yu-Mi Lee, Tark Kim, Ki-Ho Park, Seong-Ho Choi, Yee Gyung Kwak, Eun Ju Choo, Jin-Won Chung and Mi Suk Lee

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:997

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Meningitis retention syndrome (MRS) is a rare condition that presents with acute urinary retention as a complication of aseptic meningitis. Cases of MRS due to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection without a ...

    Authors: Tsuneaki Kenzaka, Ken Goda and Ayako Kumabe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:996

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  25. Mycetoma is the most common neglected disease in humans. It is a chronic, progressive, and destructive disease primarily caused by fungi or bacteria characterized by formation of dark pale grains commonly invo...

    Authors: Ammar Awad, Adnan Alnaser, Hozifa Abd-elmaged, Reyad Abdallah and Hussam S. Khougali

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:995

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  26. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) still represents a crucial concern in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) and the use of antiviral therapy are limited by side effects and the selection of viral mutations co...

    Authors: Stefania Paolucci, Giulia Campanini, Irene Cassaniti, Alessandra Tebaldi, Federica Novazzi, Alice Fratini, Antonella Meini, Federica Girelli, Laura Palumbo, Alessandro Plebani and Fausto Baldanti

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:994

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  27. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that is re-emerging in different parts of the world. This infection can be transmitted during pregnancy, causing neonatal syphilis. The objective of this study was ...

    Authors: Santa García-Cisneros, Antonia Herrera-Ortiz, Maria Olamendi-Portugal and Miguel Angel Sánchez-Alemán

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:992

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. There have been reports that long-term SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding and r...

    Authors: Xiaobin Zao, Yang Zhou, Yijun Liang, Xu Cao, Hening Chen, Xiaoke Li and Yong’an Ye

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:991

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  29. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common cause of prescribing antibiotics in family medicine. In Germany, about 40% of UTI-related prescriptions are second-line antibiotics, which contributes to emerging r...

    Authors: Ildikó Gágyor, Alexandra Greser, Peter Heuschmann, Viktoria Rücker, Andy Maun, Jutta Bleidorn, Christoph Heintze, Felix Jede, Tim Eckmanns, Anja Klingeberg, Anja Mentzel and Guido Schmiemann

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:990

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  30. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most contagious infectious diseases worldwide. Currently, drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates are considered as one of the main challenges in the global TB con...

    Authors: Masoud Keikha and Mohsen Karbalaei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:989

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Authors: Damien K. Ming, Ashleigh C. Myall, Bernard Hernandez, Andrea Y. Weiße, Robert L. Peach, Mauricio Barahona, Timothy M. Rawson and Alison H. Holmes

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:988

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:932

  32. We conducted a distributed lag non-linear time series analysis to quantify the association between air pollution and scarlet fever in Qingdao city during 2014–2018.

    Authors: Fachun Jiang, Tao Wei, Xiaowen Hu, Yalin Han, Jing Jia, Bei Pan and Wei Ni

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:987

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. While southern Africa experiences among the highest mortality rates from respiratory infections, the burden of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in rural areas is poorly understood.

    Authors: Gideon Loevinsohn, Mutinta Hamahuwa, Pamela Sinywimaanzi, Katherine Z. J. Fenstermacher, Kathryn Shaw-Saliba, Andrew Pekosz, Mwaka Monze, Richard E. Rothman, Edgar Simulundu, Philip E. Thuma and Catherine G. Sutcliffe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:986

    Content type: Research

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  34. Endemic to the hospital environment, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a leading bacterial pathogen that causes deadly infections such as bacteremia and endocarditis. In past viral pandemics, it has been the p...

    Authors: Jenna R. Adalbert, Karan Varshney, Rachel Tobin and Rafael Pajaro

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:985

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Previous studies reported worsened lipid profiles in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sofosbuvir (S...

    Authors: Ying-Wen Wang, Wei-Ping Lee, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Ming-Chih Hou and Keng-Hsin Lan

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:984

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. The inappropriate use of antimicrobials for acute infectious diarrhea is widespread and leads to the problem of antimicrobial resistance. To improve the use of antimicrobials, it is first necessary to understa...

    Authors: Akane Ono, Kensuke Aoyagi, Yuichi Muraki, Yusuke Asai, Shinya Tsuzuki, Ryuji Koizumi, Toshiaki Azuma, Yoshiki Kusama and Norio Ohmagari

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:983

    Content type: Research

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  37. Studies show men who have sex with men (MSM) practising receptive anal sex are more likely to present with secondary syphilis, suggesting anorectal primary lesions are being missed. Regular anal self-examinati...

    Authors: Ei T. Aung, Christopher K. Fairley, Jason J. Ong, Jade E. Bilardi, Marcus Y. Chen, Eric P. F. Chow and Tiffany R. Phillips

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:982

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The World Health Organization (WHO) has ranked dengue as one of the top ten threats to Global health in 2019. Sri Lanka faced a massive dengue epidemic in 2017, the largest outbreak in the country during the l...

    Authors: K. P. Jayawickreme, D. K. Jayaweera, S. Weerasinghe, D. Warapitiya and S. Subasinghe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:981

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Retention of pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants in HIV care still remains low in Uganda. Recent literature has shown that the effects of COVID-19 mitigation measures may increase disease burden...

    Authors: Sylivia Nalubega, Joshua Kyenkya, Irene Bagaya, Sylvia Nabukenya, Nelson Ssewankambo, Damalie Nakanjako and Agnes N. Kiragga

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:980

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) using smear microscopy has been based on testing two specimens: one spot and one early morning sputa. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended to replace...

    Authors: Faridath Massou, Merlin Fandohan, Ablo Prudence Wachinou, Schadrac Christin Agbla, Gildas Agodokpessi, Leen Rigouts, Bouke Catherine de Jong and Dissou Affolabi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:979

    Content type: Research

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  41. Dengue fever is a common mosquito borne viral infection. Severe dengue fever associated severe hepatitis carries high mortality. Based on the beneficial effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in paracetamol poisonin...

    Authors: D. M. D. I. B. Dissanayake, W. M. S. N. Gunaratne, K. W. M. P. P. Kumarihamy, S. A. M. Kularatne and P. V. R. Kumarasiri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:978

    Content type: Research

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  42. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, from pancreatic infections to bloodstream infections, influence the mortality of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) on the condition of limited antib...

    Authors: Di Wu, Junjie Ding, Yan Jia, Huanmiao Liu, Jie Xiao and Jie Peng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:977

    Content type: Research

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  43. South Africa has not achieved the 90–90–90 goals, in part due to low rates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among those aware of their HIV status. Perceived risk of HIV at the time of testing may aff...

    Authors: Sabina M. Govere, Sean Galagan, Boikhutso Tlou, Tivani Mashamba-Thompson, Ingrid V. Bassett and Paul K. Drain

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:976

    Content type: Research

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  44. Shanghai, as a pilot city of China to achieve the goal of eliminating hepatitis C, its strategy of allocating medical resources is a pressing problem to be solved. This study aims to infer the time-spatial clu...

    Authors: Ling-Xiao Qu, Yang Shi, Kai-Yun Chen, Yi-Han Lu and Hong Ren

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:974

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. Limited data suggest that personal lubricants may damage the vaginal mucosal epithelium, alter the vaginal microbiota, and increase inflammation. We compared vaginal cytokine profiles and microbiota before and...

    Authors: Susan Tuddenham, Christina A. Stennett, Richard A. Cone, Jacques Ravel, Andrew N. Macintyre, Khalil G. Ghanem, Xin He and Rebecca M. Brotman

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:973

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Rates of adherence to available recommendations for dose adjustments in patients with severe obesity are generally low. Hence, antimicrobials are often underdosed in these patients. Antimicrobial stewardship p...

    Authors: Stéphanie Sirard, Vincent Nault, Marie-France Langlois, Julie Perron and Louis Valiquette

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:972

    Content type: Research

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  47. Legionella spp. are ubiquitous freshwater bacteria responsible for rare but potentially severe cases of Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Legionella sainthelensi is a non-pneumophila Legionella species that was first i...

    Authors: Laure Kamus, Bénédicte Roquebert, Jérôme Allyn, Nicolas Allou, Dorothée Valance, Charles Simon, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee, Ghislaine Descours, Sophie Jarraud and Guillaume Miltgen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2021 21:966

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time.